Gastrointestinal System Disorder

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8/13/2019 Gastrointestinal System Disorder 1/29 GASTROI TESTINAL SYSTEM DISORDER  GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE ( GERD ) Results when the lower esophageal sphincter  — the muscle that acts as a valve between the esophagus and stomach  — becomes weak or relaxes when it should not, causing stomach contents to rise up into the esophagus. Abnormalities in the body such as hiatal hernias may also cause GERD. Hiatal hernias occur when the upper part of the stomach moves up into the chest. The stomach can slip through an opening found in the diaphragm.  The diaphragm is the muscle wall that separates the stomach from the
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Transcript of Gastrointestinal System Disorder

  • 8/13/2019 Gastrointestinal System Disorder





    Results when the lower

    esophageal sphincterthe muscle

    that acts as a valve between the

    esophagus and stomachbecomes

    weak or relaxes when it should not,

    causing stomach contents to rise up

    into the esophagus. Abnormalities

    in the body such as hiatal herniasmay also cause GERD. Hiatal

    hernias occur when the upper part

    of the stomach moves up into the

    chest. The stomach can slip through

    an opening found in the diaphragm.The diaphragm is the muscle wall

    that separates the stomach from the

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    chest. Hiatal hernias may cause

    GERD because of stomach acid

    flowing back up through theopening; however, most produce no


    Dry Chronic Coughthe trachea ('windpipe') and

    the esophagus form from a

    common precursor and thus are

    linked by a common nervous

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    system reflex. thus, irritation in

    the esophagus due to acid

    refluxcauses a neuronallymediated reflex in the trachea

    and the end result is a nagging,

    dry cough. another theory is that

    very small amounts of refluxed

    acid are aspirated from the

    esophagus down the trachea and

    the direct caustic irritation of

    this acid fluid causes cough.

    Wheezingoccurs when the sphincter

    between the esophagus and

    stomach either relaxes

    inappropriately or is weak. Thisallows stomach juices to back

    up, or reflux, into the esophagus,

    creating heartburn. When the
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    stomach fluid backs up into the

    esophagus and overflows into the

    breathing tubes, this can resultin airway blockage which

    can lead to wheezing that can

    be misdiagnosed as asthma.

    Nausea and VomitingA couple of factors can play

    into this, and they relate to how

    acid reflux works. Reflux occurs

    when the lower esophageal

    sphincter (LES), a ring of muscle

    that separates

    your esophagusand

    your stomach, is unable to close

    tightly after youve ingested foodor fluids.
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    RegurgitationAt the upper end of the

    esophagus is the upperesophageal sphincter (UES). The

    UES is a circular ring of muscle

    that is very similar in its actions

    to the LES. That is, the UES

    prevents esophageal contents

    from backing up into the throat.

    When small amounts of refluxed

    liquid and/or foods breach (get

    through) the UES and enter the

    throat, there may be an acid

    taste in the mouth. If larger

    quantities breach the UES,

    patients may suddenly find their

    mouths filled with the liquid orfood. What's more, frequent or

    prolonged regurgitation can lead

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    to acid-induced erosions of the


    Sore Throatthe back portion of the throat

    that includes the last third of the

    tongue, the soft palate and the

    tonsils (fleshy tissue that are part

    of the throat's immune defenses).

    Dysphagiaoccurs when gastric acid from

    the stomach goes up into the

    esophagus, often

    causing inflammationof the

    esophagus - esophagitis.

    Dental ErosionGastric acid will displace

    saliva easily from tooth surfaces,
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    and proteolytic pepsin will

    remove protective dental pellicle

    HeartburnReflux means that stomach

    acid and juices move back up

    into your esophagus, the tube

    that leads from the throat to the


    APPENDICITISAn obstruction, or blockage, of the

    appendiceal lumen causes

    appendicitis. Mucus backs up in the

    appendiceal lumen, causing bacteria

    that normally live inside the

    appendix to multiply. As a result,

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    the appendix swells and becomes

    infected. Sources of blockage


    Sneezingare produced by repeated

    involuntary contractions of a

    hemidiaphragm. Just after the

    muscle begins to contract, the

    glottis shuts off the trachea

    producing the noise which givesthe condition its name.

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    Nauseaas an unpleasant subjective

    sensation as a result fromstimulation of the

    gastrointestinal lining, the

    chemoreceptor trigger zone in the

    base of the fourth ventricle, the

    vestibular apparatus, or the

    cerebral cortex.

    VomitingIt is controlled by a region of

    medulla which is outside the

    blood-brain barrier, so can be the

    target of long range signals like

    hormones. When you are having

    GI problems, like infections, partof the immune response is the

    release of hormones and

    chemokines. Which starts non-

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    specific immune functions, like

    recruiting neutrophils and


    Constipationis a condition of the digestive

    system. The sufferer has hard

    feces that are difficult to expel. In

    most cases, this occurs because

    the colon has absorbed too much

    of the water from the food that is

    in the colon. The slower the food

    moves through your digestive

    tract, the more water the colon

    will absorb from food. Diarrhea

    Appendicitis is thought toresult from obstruction of the

    appendiceal lumen, typically by

    lymphoid hyperplasia, but

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    occasionally by a fecalith, foreign

    body, or even worms. The

    obstruction leads to distention,bacterial overgrowth, ischemia,

    and inflammation.

    Low Grade FeverThe appendix may become

    swollen and filled with pus (a

    fluid formed in infected tissue,

    consisting of while blood cells

    and cellular debris), and may

    eventually rupture. Signs of

    rupture include the presence of

    symptoms for more than 24

    hours, a fever, a high white blood

    cell count, and a fast heart rate.

    Very rarely, the inflammationand symptoms of appendicitis

    may disappear but recur again

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    Abdominal SwellingThe mucus or stool hardens,

    becomes rock-like, and blocksthe opening. This rock is called a

    fecalith (literally, a rock of stool).

    At other times, it might be that

    thelymphatic tissuein the

    appendix swells and blocks the

    opening. After the blockage

    occurs, bacteria which normally

    are found within the appendix

    begin to invade (infect) the wall of

    the appendix. The body responds

    to the invasion by mounting an

    attack on the bacteria, an attack

    called inflammation.

    Autoimmune Hepatitis
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    is a disease in which the body'simmune system attacks liver cells.

    This immune response causesinflammation of the liver, also called


    Enlarged LiverIt is a disease in which the body's

    immune system attacks liver cells.

    This causes the liver to become

    inflamed (hepatitis). Jaundice

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    The liver itself can be temporarilyor permanently damaged, reducing

    its ability to break down bilirubin(mix it with bile) and move it into

    the gallbladder. The gallbladder or

    its bile ducts can become blocked,

    preventing excretion of bilirubin into

    the intestine. Bilirubin will then

    back up into the liver and then into

    the bloodstream. Any condition that

    leads to very rapid destruction of

    red blood cells can create too much


    Itching/ Skin RashesThis symptom occurs because

    when the liver is inflamed, the bile

    ducts can become inflamed as welland as a result they back up and

    deposit bile products into the skin.


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    caused by the flu at the time andate only fruits and vegetables and

    plain pasta. When after a while Ididn't even want to eat those foods,

    and began to feel nauseated at the

    very idea of eating anything, I knew

    something was seriously wrong.

    Vomiting Loss of appetite Dark Urine Gray-Colored Stool

    This is due to a build-up of the

    chemical bilirubin which is made in

    the liver and spills into the blood in

    some liver conditions. (Withjaundice due to hepatitis your urine

    goes dark, your faeces (stools) may

    go pale and and you tend to itch.)

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    CELIAC DISEASEis a digestive disease that

    damages the small intestine and

    interferes with absorption of

    nutrients from food. People who

    have celiac disease cannot tolerate

    gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and

    barley. Gluten is found mainly in

    foods but may also be found in

    everyday products such as

    medicines, vitamins, and lip balms.

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    Abdominal Bloating Chronic Diarrhea Vomiting Constipation Fatty Stool Weight Loss Fatigue Tingling Numbness in the

    Hands and Feet


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    LIVER CIRRHOSISis scarring of the liver. Scar tissue

    forms because of injury or long-term

    disease. Scar tissue replaces healthy

    liver tissue and blocks the normal

    flow of blood through the liver.

    Loss Weight Ascites Increased Blood Pressure

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    Varices Jaundice

    WILSON DISEASEis a genetic disorder that prevents

    the body from getting rid of extra

    copper. A small amount of copper

    obtained from food is needed to stay

    healthy, but too much copper is

    poisonous. In Wilson disease,

    copper builds up in the liver, brain,

    eyes, and other organs. Over time,

    high copper levels can cause life-

    threatening organ damage.

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    Swelling of the Liver Swelling of the Spleen Jaundice

    Most bilirubin is produced

    when Hb is broken down intounconjugated bilirubin (and

    other substances). Unconjugated

    bilirubin binds to albumin in the

    blood for transport to the liver,

    where it is taken up byhepatocytes and conjugated with

    glucuronic acid to make it water

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    soluble. Conjugated bilirubin is

    excreted in bile into the

    duodenum. In the intestine,bacteria metabolize bilirubin to

    form urobilinogen. Some

    urobilinogen is eliminated in the

    feces, and some is reabsorbed,

    extracted by hepatocytes,

    reprocessed, and re-excreted in


    Fatigue Tremors Muscle Stiffness Low Platelet Count Low White Blood Count

    CROHNS DISEASEcauses inflammation, or swelling,

    and irritation of any part of the

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    digestive tractalso called the

    gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The part

    most commonly affected is the endpart of the small intestine, called the

    ileum.The GI tract is a series of

    hollow organs joined in a long,

    twisting tube from the mouth to the

    anus. The movement of muscles in

    the GI tract, along with the release

    of hormones and enzymes, allows

    for the digestion of food.

    Abdominal Pain

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    Diarrhea Rectal Bleeding Weight Loss Fever

    DIVERTICULAR DISEASEis a condition that occurs when aperson has problems from small

    pouches, or sacs, that have formed

    and pushed outward through weak

    spots in the colon wall. Each pouch

    is called a diverticulum. Multiplepouches are called diverticula.The

    colon is part of the large intestine.

    The large intestine absorbs water

    from stool and changes it from a

    liquid to a solid form. Diverticula are

    most common in the lower part of

    the colon, called the sigmoid colon.

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    FeverChillsNauseaVomitingWeaknessDizzinessAbdominal Cramping

    PEPTIC ULCERis a sore on the lining of the

    stomach or duodenum, the

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    beginning of the small intestine.

    Less commonly, a peptic ulcer may

    develop just above the stomach inthe esophagus, the tube that

    connects the mouth to the stomach.

    Weight LossSince nausea and vomiting are

    other symptoms of stomach

    ulcers, they result in an

    additional loss of weight. The

    lining of the stomach is damaged

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    and the scar tissue thats formed

    blocks the passageway to the

    stomach. This results in a loss ofappetite and a subsequent loss of


    Poor Appetitecause edema or swelling of the

    tissues that lead from the

    stomach into the small intestine,

    and prevent the food from

    passing out of the stomach. This

    gives a falsefeeling of fullness

    and results in a loss of appetite.

    Bloating Burping Nausea Vomitingits result from obstruction of

    the pylorus or mechanical

    obstruction from scarring or

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    acute swelling of the inflamed

    mucous membrane adjacent to

    the ulcer. Black Stool Bloody Vomiting Burning Sensation

    It is believed that the pain

    occurs when the increased acid

    content of the stomach and

    duodenum erodes the lesuin and

    stimulates the exposed nerve

    ending. Another theory suggests

    that contact of the lesion with

    acid stimulates a local reflex

    mechanism that initiates

    contraction of the adjacent

    smooth muscle.


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    Is a disease of the large intestinethat causes severe constipation or

    intestinal obstruction. Constipationmeans stool moves through the

    intestines slower than usual. Bowel

    movements occur less often than

    normal and stools are difficult to

    pass. Some children with HD cant

    pass stool at all, which can result in

    the complete blockage of the

    intestines, a condition called

    intestinal obstruction.

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