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    Human Resource Planning It is a process of getting the right number of qualified

    people into the right job at the right time

    This is very much important for strategic planning

    A process which is very much helpful to arrive at the

    competencies Help to identify the core competencies

    A tool used to increase the productivity

    An assurance to stand unique with everything

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    Factors that determine HR plans

    Need for HumanResources:Quantity and

    Skill levels

    Available financialFinancial Resources

    HR Plans and Policies forRecruitment

    SelectionHR developmentCompensation

    Performance ManagementStaffing Adjustments

    Strategy of theorganisation Culture of theorganisation





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    Human Resource Planning

    It is a process of analysing and identifyingthe need for and availability of he human

    resources so that the organisation can meet its

    objectives. It is planned on the basis of

    Production schedules

    Market fluctuations

    Demand forecasts

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    Forecast personnel requirementsfuture manpower needs in the organisation

    Cope with changes

    in market conditions, technology, products

    and government regulations in an effective wayUse existing manpower productively

    inventory of existing skill level, training,educational qualification, work experience etc.,

    Promote employees in a systematic manner

    useful information on the basis of whichmanagement decides promotion

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    ImportanceReservoir of talent

    Prepare people for future

    Expand or contract

    Cut costs

    Succession planning

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    Process of Human Resource


    1. Forecasting the Demand for Human Resources

    a) External Challenges

    b) Organisational Decisions

    c) Workforce Factors

    d) Forecasting Techniques

    e) Work force Analysis

    f) Work Load Analysisg) Job Analysis

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    Process of Human Resource


    3. Determining the manpower Gaps- Number required at the beginning of the year

    - Changes of requirements forecasted during theyear

    - Total requirements at the end of the year

    - Additions (transfers, promotions)

    - Deficit and surplus

    - Losses of those recruited during the year

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    Process of Human Resource


    4. Formulating HR plans- Recruitment plan

    - Redeployment (new place of work)

    - Redundancy plan (unemployed)

    - Training plan

    - Productivity plan

    - Retention plan

    - Control points

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    HR Planning ProcessOrganisational

    Objectives andStrategies

    Scan ExternalEnvironment forChanges affecting

    Labor supply

    Analyse Internal Inventoryof HR Capabilities


    Survey of PeopleAvailable

    HR Strategies andPlans

    OrganisationalNeed for People

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    Scanning the External


    Process of studying the environment of theorganisation to pinpoint opportunities and threats.

    Here the main thrust is given to the

    environment like government issues, workforce

    changes, economic conditions, geographic and

    competition issues.

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    Government Influences

    Tax legislation at local, state and federal levelsaffects HR planning

    Pension provisions and Social Security legislation

    may change retirement patterns

    Elimination or expansion of tax benefits for jobtraining expenses might alter some job training

    activities associated with workforce expansions

    Tax credits for employee day care and fninancial aid

    for education may affect employer practices inrecruiting and retaining workers.

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    Economic Conditions

    The business cycle of recession and economicbooms affects HR planning

    Factors such as interest rate, inflation, and

    economic growth affect the availability of workers

    Decisions on wages, overtime, and hiring or

    laying off workers may be affected by economic


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    Geographic and Competitive


    Other employees in the area

    Employee Resistance to the geographic location

    Direct competition in the industry and the impactof inter-geographic location

    The impact of International Competition

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    Workforce composition Changes in the composition of workforce like

    - regular

    - voluntary

    - full time

    - job shares- telecommuters

    - seasonal/contingent

    - retirees

    - involuntary

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    Internal assessment of the

    organisational workforce

    Auditing jobs and skills

    - what jobs exist now?

    - how many individuals are performing each job?

    - what are reporting relationships of jobs- how essential is each job

    - what jobs will be needed to implement future

    organisation strategies?

    - what are the characteristics of anticipated job?

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    Internal assessment of the

    organisational workforce

    Organisational Capabilities Inventory

    - Individual Employee Demographics (age, length of

    service in the organisation, time in present job)

    - Individual Career Progressions (jobs held, time ineach job, promotions or other job changes, pay


    - Individual Performance Data (work

    accomplishments, growth in skills

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    Mathematical models like- statistical regression analysis

    - simulation models

    - productivity ratios- staffing ratios

    Judgmental techniques like

    - estimates

    - rules of thumb

    - delphi techniques

    - nominal groups

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    Job Analysis

    The procedure for determining the duties andskill requirements of a job and the kind of personwho should be hired.

    It is a formal and detailed examination of jobs.

    It is the systematic investigation of the tasks,duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job

    It is also an important personnel activitybecause it identifies what people do in their jobs andwhat they require in order to do a job satifactorily.

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    Aims of Job Analysis Work activitieshow, why, and when Human behaviourssensing, communicating,

    deciding and writing

    Machines, tools, equipments, and work aids used

    Performance standardsbasis for evaluation

    Job contextphysical work settings, work schedule,


    Human requirementsjob related knowledge orskills and required personal attributes

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    Uses of job analysis

    Human resource planning



    Placement and orientation



    Employee safety

    Performance Appraisal

    Job design and redesign

    Job evaluation

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    Steps in Job Analysis

    Identify the use to which the information will be put Review relevant background information such as

    organisation charts and prior job descriptions

    Select representative position to be analysed

    Actually analyse the job

    Review the information with job incumbents

    Develop a job description and job specification

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    Standard questionnaires used

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)developed at Purdue University to

    quantitatively sample work oriented job

    elements. It contains 194 items divided into six

    major job dimensions. They are

    - information input

    - mental processes

    - physical activities

    - relationship with other people

    - job context

    - other job characteristics

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    Management position description


    Standardised instrument designed specifically foruse in analysing managerial jobs. The 274 itemquestionnaire contains 15 dimensions. They are

    - product, marketing and financial planning

    - coordination of other organisational unitsand personnel

    - internal business control

    - products and services responsibility- public and customer relations

    - advanced consulting

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    Management position description

    questionnaire (MPDQ)

    - autonomy of actions

    - approval of financial commitments

    - staff service

    - supervision

    - complexity and stress

    - advanced financial responsibility

    - broad personnel responsibility

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    Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

    FJA is a worker-oriented job analysisapproach that attempts to describe the whole

    person on the job. There are five steps to be


    - identification of organisations goals

    - identification and description of tasks

    - analysis of tasks

    - developing performance standards basedon analysis

    - development of training content needed by

    the job holder.

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    Job description

    is a written statement of what the jobholderactually does, how he or she does it, and underwhat conditions the job is performed.

    This information in turn used to write a job

    specification that lists the knowledge, abilities,and skills needed to perform the job satisfactorily

    There is no standard format you must use inwriting job description.

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    Job description contents

    Job identification Job summary

    Responsibilities and duties

    Authority of incumbent Standards of performance

    Working conditions

    Job specifications

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    Contents of JD

    Job identification

    This involves several type of information

    such as

    job titlespecifies the title of the job such as

    supervisor, marketing manager, inventory clerketc.,

    job statusexempt of nonexempt status of the

    job (administrative and professional are exmpt

    from overtime and minimum wage provisions

    location of the jobplant/division and

    department/section along with immediate

    supervisors signature, pay scale, the grade or

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    Contents of JD

    Job summaryshould describe the general nature of the job,

    listing only its major functions of activities

    for eg., marketing manager plans, directs and

    coordinates the marketing of the organisations

    products and/or services.

    try to avoid the general statements like

    performs other assignments as required.

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    Contents of JD

    Responsibilities and Duties

    here the major duties are listed and

    described in a few sentences

    this also describe the limits of the jobholders

    authority, including his or her decision-making

    authority, direct supervision of other personnel,

    and budgetary limitations.

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    Job description guidelines Be clearshould portray the work

    Indicate scope of authoritybe sure and indicatethe position

    Be specificselect the most specific words toshow and use action words such as analyze, gather,

    assemble, plan, devise, infer, deliver, maintain,supervise, and recommend.

    Be briefshort accurate statements to accomplishthe purpose best

    Recheckcheck whether the description fulfills thebasic requirements

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    Practical job analysis approach

    1. Decide on a Plan2. Develop an organisation chart

    3. Use a Job Analysis/description

    questionnaire4. Obtain the dictionary of Occupational titles

    5. Choose appropriate definitions and put

    them on index cards

    6. Put appropriate DOT summaries on the top

    of your job description form

    7. Complete your job description

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    Job Specification

    takes the job description and answersthe question, What kind of person to recruit and

    for what qualities that person should be tested.

    The job specification may be a separate section

    on the job description or a separate document


    S ifi ti f t i d

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    Specifications for trained versus

    untrained personnel

    Writing job specification for trained people isrelatively straightforward

    The problems are more complex when youre

    filling jobs with untrained people. Here you mustspecify qualities such as physical traits,personality, interests, or sensory skills that implysome potential for performing the job or forhaving the ability to be trained for the job.

    Job specifications based on

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    Job specifications based on


    This approach is based on educated guess of peoplelike supervisors and human resource managers.

    The basic procedure here is to ask, what does ittake in terms of education, intelligence, training and

    the like to do this job well? The Dictionary of Occupational Titles will be useful

    here. In this the job analysts and vocationalcounselors have made judgments regarding each

    jobs human requirements.

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    Dictionary of Occupational Title In this each of these human requirements or

    traits has been rated and assigned a letter asfollowsGIntelligenceVVerbal

    NNumericalSSpatialPPerceptionQClerical Perception

    KMotor Co-ordinationFFinger DexterityMManual DexterityEEye-hand-foot coordination

    CColor discrimination

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    Research Insights Recent study obtained from over 18,000

    employees in 42 different hourly entry level jobs.Here they found various behaviours which wascategorized as generic and otherwise importantacross the work boards regardless of their jobs.IndustriousnessThoroughnessSchedule Flexibility


    Off-task Behaviour (reverse)Unruliness (reverse)Theft (reverse)Drug misuse (reverse)

    Job Specification based on

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    Job Specification based on

    Statistical Analysis

    Predictors like human traits, intelligence, orfinger dexterity

    Indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.

    There is a five step procedure for this1. Analyse job and decide how to measureperformance2. Select Personal traits like finger dexterity

    which is useful for successful performance3. Test candidates for these traits4. Measure these candidates subsequentperformance

    5. Statistically analyse the relationship between

    Job Specification based on

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    Job Specification based on

    Statistical Analysis

    Personality Related job RequirementsThis forms the basic personality dimensions

    such as



    emotional stability

    about the above characteristics a questionnaire is

    given and the results were arrived statistically.

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    Job Enlargement

    By the mid 1900s writers reacted to the AdamSmith and Fredrick Taylors concept of

    specialization and efficiency as dehumanizing

    one and proposed various solutions like

    Job Enlargement

    Job Rotation

    Job Enrichment

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    Job Enlargement

    It means assigning workers additional same- levelactivities thus increasing the number of activities

    they perform.

    For eg. The worker was assembling chairs, who

    previously only bolted the seats to the legs might

    take the additional tasks of assembling the legs

    and attaching the back as well.

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    Job Rotation

    Systematically moving workers from one job to


    On an assembly line, a worker might spend an

    hour fitting the doors, the next hour installing the

    headlamps and so on.

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    Job Enrichment

    This means redesigning jobs in a way thatincrease the opportunities for the workers to

    experience feelings of responsibility,

    achievement, growth, and recognition by doing

    the job well. Five ways to do this are1. Form natural work groups

    2. Combine tasks

    3. Establish client relationships4. Vertical loading

    5. Open feedback Channels

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    De-jobbing This is ultimately a result of changes taking place in

    business today.

    Organisations need to grapple with the revolutionaryforcesaccelerating product and technologicalchange, globalize competition, deregulation, political

    instability, demographic changes and trends towardsa service society and the information age.

    The forces like this have dramatically increased theneed for firms to be responsive, flexible, and capable

    of competing in the global marketplace.

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    Coping with de-jobbing

    Some radical changes in the structure of theorganisation will avoid this blurring. They are1. Flatter Organisations(General Electric, ABB)

    2. Work Teams (traditional pyramid organisationwas replace with multi-skilled, cross functional

    and self-directed teams)3. The Boundaryless organisation(widespreaduse of teams and similar structural mechanismslike avoiding sales and production hierarchical

    levels4. Reengineering (the fundamental rethinkingand radical redesign of business processes toachieve dramatic improvements in critical,contemporary measures of performance such as