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    PMBOKPMBOKGuidelinesGuidelines

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 2

    Human Resources Management

    PMBOK Processes

    1. Organizational Planning2. Staff Acquisition

    3. Team Development

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    Project Human Resources

    Management DEFINED:

    Includes the processes required to

    make the most effective use of thepeople involved with the project

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 4

    Project HRM Dilemma HRMHRM questionsquestions on thePMP examPMP exam are

    relatively easyeasy

    Developing and using superiorsuperiorHRM skillsHRM skills

    on realprojectsprojects is difficultdifficultand rarerare

    A major distinction between superiorA major distinction between superior

    leaders and others is goodleaders and others is goodteam buildingteam building

    skillsskills

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 5

    ProjectHRM

    Organizational Planning

    Templates

    HR Practices

    OT

    Stakeholder Analysis

    --Project Interfaces

    --Staffing Requirements

    --Constraints

    --Role/Responsibility Analysis

    --Staff MGT Plan

    --Organizational Chart

    --Supporting Detail

    InputsInputs OutputsOutputsPROCESSESPROCESSES

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 6

    ProjectHRM

    Staff Acquisition

    Negotiations

    Preassignment

    Procurement

    --Staff MGT Plan

    --Staff Pool Description

    --Recruitment Practices

    --Project Staff Assigned

    --Project Team Directory

    InputsInputs OutputsOutputsPROCESSESPROCESSES

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 7

    ProjectHRM

    Team Development

    Team Building

    MGT Skills

    Reward SYS

    Collocation

    Training

    --Project Staff

    --Project Plan

    --Staff MGT Plan

    --Performance Reports

    --External Feedback

    --Performance Improvements

    --Performance Appraisals

    InputsInputs OutputsOutputsPROCESSESPROCESSES

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 8

    Major Processes DefinedAn Informal View

    1.

    Identifythe

    People

    2.Obtain

    the

    People

    3.

    Develop

    the

    People1

    2

    3

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    1. Staff Requirements

    Identify PeopleKEY CONCEPTS

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 10

    Authority

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 11

    ProjectHRM

    Types of Authority

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 12

    Project Managers Authority

    None Low Medium High

    Functional Project

    ExpeditorProject

    Coordinator

    WeakMatrix

    Strong

    Matrix

    Projectized

    Increasing Authority

    Type of Organization Structure

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 13

    Power

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 14

    PM Power Spectrum

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 15

    ProjectHRM

    Power and Authority Problems Power and authority are perceived

    Poorly documented or no formal authority

    Dual accountability of personnel The project organization encourages individualism

    Shifting of personnel loyalties from vertical tohorizontal lines

    Ability to influence or administer rewards andpunishments

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 16

    Sources of Powerand Impact on People

    Possible

    Possible

    Possible

    PossiblePossible

    Possible

    Possible

    Possible

    Possible

    Possible

    Likely

    Likely

    Likely

    Likely

    Likely

    Commitment Compliance ResistancePower Source

    Legitimate

    Reward

    Coercive

    Expert

    Referent

    Response of Individual

    Total Power = Positional + Personal PowerTotal Power = Positional + Personal Power

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    Elements of

    Staff Management PlanResponsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

    Line Responsibility Chart (LRC)

    Team Organization Chart

    Resource Spreadsheet

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 18

    Staffing Management Plan

    Subset of overall project plan

    Describes when and how human

    resources will be brought onto and

    taken off of the project team

    Includes all organizational planning

    outputs

    Supporting detail

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 19

    ProjectHRM

    Responsibility Assignment Matrix(RAM)

    A structure which relates the projectorganizational structure to the work

    breakdown structure to help ensure thateach element of the project's scope of workis assigned to a responsible individual ororganization. It is used to:

    Establish functional responsibility

    Establish contracting strategy

    Establish manageable work packages for control andreporting

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 20

    ProjectHRMElements of a RAM

    General management responsibility

    Operations management responsibility

    Specialized responsibility

    Must be consulted

    May be consulted

    Must be notified

    Must approve

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 21

    ProjectHRM

    RAM Illustration

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 22

    Responsibility Matrix- Example

    Purpose/BenefitShows level of

    responsibility for groups

    and/or individuals

    Graphically links the

    work to be done to those

    doing it

    PersonActivity

    A B C

    P = Participant A= Accountable

    R = Review S = Sign-Off

    Plan & Control

    Requirements

    Func Specs

    Design

    Fabrication

    Validation

    A

    A

    P

    R

    S

    S

    A

    RA

    R S

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 23

    ProjectHRM

    LineR

    esponsibility Chart LRC-

    Describe how internal and external

    communications should take place

    "information originate by"

    "reported to"

    Show the distribution of data items

    Identify skills distribution

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 25

    Team Organization Chart- Example

    Purpose/BenefitDefines formal &

    informal reporting

    relationships amongpeople on the project

    Helps in identifying

    communication/

    information channels

    St ff

    St ff

    St ff

    Business

    Professionals

    St ff

    St ff

    St ff

    Systems

    Developers

    St ff

    St ff

    St ff

    Technical

    Experts

    r j t M r

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 26

    Resource Spreadsheet- Example

    Purpose/BenefitShows group and/or

    individual

    responsibilities setagainst time

    Graphically links the

    work to be done with

    who and when

    MonthActivity

    Jul Aug Sep

    Plan & Control

    RequirementsFunc Specs

    Design

    Fabrication

    Validation

    Joe Joe Joe

    SueSueTom

    TomTom

    Bill

    Fred

    Bill

    Fred

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 27

    Check on Learning1. Which of the following are part ofthe Staff ManagementPlan?

    a. List of project stakeholders

    b. A chart describing work assignment responsibilities

    c. A chart describing internal/external communications responsibilitiesd. A chart describing work responsibilities against time

    2. Define Compliance_____________________________

    3. Define Commitment____________________________

    4. List 4 things a leader can influence to increase productivity.

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    SOLUTIONS TO

    Check on Learning1. Which of the following are part of the Staff Management Plan?

    b. A chart describing assignment responsibilities---RAM

    c. A chart describing internal/external communications responsibilities---LRC

    d. A chart describing responsibilities against time---RESOURCESPREADSHEET

    2. Compliance isMINIMUMEFFORT OR PERFORMANCETO AVOID BEING

    PUNISHED ORRECEIVING UNWANTED ATTENTION.

    3. Commitment is EXTRA EFFORT OR PERFORMANCETO ACCOMPLISHMORETHANMINIMUMREQUIRED. ENTHUSIAM AND INTEREST IN DOING GOOD JOB.

    4. List 4 things a leader can influence to increase productivity.

    1. IN FLUENCEPERCEPTION OFTECHNICAL EXPERTISE

    2. OFFER CHALLENGING WORK3. ENCOURAGEFRIENDSHIPS

    4. INC REASEPAY

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    2. Staff Acquisition

    Get StaffPMBOK GUIDELINES

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 30

    HR Processes In Depth

    Suppliers

    Inputs Tools/Tech Outputs

    CustomersActivities

    .1 Staff Mgmt Plan

    .2 Staff Pool Descrip

    .3 RecruitmentPractices

    .1 Negotiations

    .2 Pre-assignment

    .3 Procurement

    .1 Project Staff

    Assigned

    .2 Project Team

    Directory

    Functional Orgs.

    HR Organization

    Make assignments

    Review PoliciesComplete hiring

    paperwork

    Project Manager

    Project Team

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 32

    Project Managers Skills

    Successful PMs prioritize the following as important skills

    1. Communications skills

    2. Organizational skills

    3. Team building skills

    4. Leadership skills5. Coping skills

    6. Technological skills

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    3. Team DevelopmentBuild Team/Develop People

    PMBOK GUIDELINES

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 34

    Team Building Activities

    Team Planning

    Kickoff Meetings

    Team Training

    Team Exercises

    Plan them in, otherwise they wont happen

    Example actions include:

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 35

    Project Leader versus Manager

    Project Leader Set direction/vision

    Inspire team work

    Align employees Motivate & support

    Project Manager Plan & budget

    Organize groups

    Staff Control

    Project Managers Who

    Are Also Project Leaders

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 36

    Project Leader Is adaptable and innovative

    Leads others through the project processes

    Constantly learns

    Is decisive; a problem solver

    Is an accomplished motivator

    Show genuine interest in members growth

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 37

    Project Leader(cont.) Can multitask with a broad knowledge base

    Negotiates from strength built through

    supplying accurate information

    Is a good listener; relays directions

    accurately

    Understands varied behavioral styles and

    motivation theory***

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 39

    Comparison ofContentContentTheories

    Self-Actualization

    Esteem

    Social/Affiliation

    Safety/Security

    Physiological

    Growth

    Relatedness

    Existence

    Motivators

    -advancement

    -growth

    -achievement

    Hygiene

    -job security

    -salary

    -working cond.

    -group member

    Need for

    Achievement

    Need forPower

    Need for

    Affiliation

    1G: Needs1G: Needs TheoriesTheories2G: Motivator2G: Motivator

    TheoryTheory

    3G:3G:

    AchievementAchievement

    TheoryTheory

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    MajorProcessProcess Theories

    Theory X &YTheory X &Y

    Contingency TheoryContingency Theory

    Goal-setting Theory

    Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory

    Re-enforcement Theory

    Equity Theory

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    Project HRMMajor Problems andMajor Problems and

    Best PracticesBest Practices

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 43

    Problems in Project HRM ConflictsConflicts

    Disruptive PeopleDisruptive People

    ConfrontationConfrontation

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 44

    Sources of ConflictSources of Conflict

    Schedules

    Project priorities

    Manpower resources

    Procedures

    Technical opinions

    Cost systems

    Personality conflicts

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 47

    ProductivityProductivity Often, a factor of10 separates the best performers (or

    teams) from the worst.

    80/20Rule80/20Rule Also, the best is usually more than twice as productive as

    the average.

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    Best Practices in PMMANAGEMENT andMANAGEMENT and

    LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 56

    ---CLASSEXERCISE 1---

    WHAT ARETHE9 PMBOKWHAT ARETHE9 PMBOK

    AREAS??AREAS??1. ____________________

    2. ____________________

    3. ____________________4. ____________________

    5. ____________________

    6. ____________________

    7. ____________________8. ____________________

    9. ____________________

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 57

    Topic Overview

    Introduction and background

    Management

    Power

    Leadership

    1st and 2nd GenerationSituational LeadershipSituational Leadership

    3GSL - 3rd GenerationSituationalSituationalLeadershipLeadership

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 59

    China 2001--Present Transition into open and global marketplace

    Growing complexitiesGrowing complexitiesrequire

    transforming organizations through bestbestmodern management practicesmodern management practices

    Adapting and coping with acceleratingacceleratingchangeschangesrequires transforming

    organizations through new approaches tonew approaches toleadershipleadershipand tolerance for visionary anddisruptive leaders

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 60

    What is Management? Structured approach to allocating resources

    to best meet goals efficiently and effectively

    As complexitycomplexityincreases managementmanagement

    sophistication increases

    Planning**

    Organizing**

    Controlling**

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    Management Science

    Principles and practices for using resources to accomplish

    organizational goals efficiently and effectively

    Impersonal in nature

    Formalized procedures for planning, organizing andcontrolling

    Reduce uncertainty and risk

    Improve efficiencies

    Control resource expenditures,

    Achieve goals on schedule

    Standardize and structure organizational behavior into

    orderly and stable work patterns or conformity

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 62

    Managers

    Personal behaviors

    Behaviors rarely match model or theories

    Work at unrelenting pace due to work overload Many interruptions, work activities are brief and

    abrupt

    Spend more than 85% of time on URGENCIES rather

    PRIORITIES

    Seek out other people while maintaining low

    levels of emotional involvement

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 63

    Priorities Versus Urgencies

    Priorities: work that accomplishes goals

    Urgencies: These are the work activities that managers really do

    Work that requires managers attention real-time

    Work activities that are not priorities or result in

    goals Typically over85% of work activities are

    URGENCIES

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    Understanding POWEROrganizational Authority VS

    Personal Power

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 65

    Understanding POWER

    Power from organization (positionauthority)

    Legitimate or legal authority to induce compliance

    Use of rewards and punishments Special connections and information

    Position Power is delegated from above and is volatile andperishable

    Power from people (personal influential power)

    Power is derived from others Visionary

    Expert

    Charismatic (emotionally energizes others)

    Is difficult to attain but not easily lost

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    Organizational Power is from top

    down

    POWERPOWERManagement Level

    TOPTOP

    MIDDLEMIDDLE

    SUPERVISORYSUPERVISORY

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    Position Power

    Source of power is top down

    Amount of power depends on level of position

    Legal Legitimate

    Induces compliance

    Rewards Punishment

    Is perishable quickly gained or lost

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 68

    Personal Power is from bottom

    up

    POWERPOWERManagement Level

    TOPTOP

    MIDDLEMIDDLE

    SUPERVISORYSUPERVISORY

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    Personal Power

    Individual character and personality

    Perceived as Expert

    Charismatic personality or is well-liked Visionary

    Enthusiastic and energetic

    Influential or motivational

    Source is other people

    Not easily gained nor easily lost

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    Project HRM Presented by Dr. Herb Brooks--2003 71

    What is Leadership?

    Leadership is aboutCHANGELeadership is aboutCHANGE!! CHANGING PEOPLEPEOPLE

    It is influencing people to accomplish goals

    Goals can be organizational or personal Focus on supervisory leadership

    CHANGINGORGANIZATIONSORGANIZATIONS

    It is having a vision of the future and energizing others

    to believe and achieve this vision Transform groups, teams and organizations into

    believing desiring and achieving vision

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    Leadership and Leaders

    Theories and models vary according to the

    times and culture

    Theories are heavily contaminated by currentlypopular leaders or practices

    Confusion between people versus principles

    Always searching forbest leadership

    theory/model Constantly changing and evolving

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    GOAL: EffectiveLeadershipEffectiveLeadership

    Increases leaders time efficiency Getting desired performance from people

    When you are present

    When you are NOT present Most leaders can get desired performance

    when they are present

    Best leaders or effective leaders getBest leaders or effective leaders getdesired performance when NOT presentdesired performance when NOT present positively affect feelings and attitudes

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    Leadership includes changing

    organizations through visionary ideas VISIONARYLEADERSHIPVISIONARYLEADERSHIP

    Transforming organizations, institutions,Transforming organizations, institutions,nationsnations

    Best practices for influencing behavior can be measured,quantified, articulated and learned

    Creating and promoting visionary ideas is difficult tomeasure, quantify or teach.

    Changing an organizations culture is

    DISRUPTIVEDISRUPTIVE

    UNCOMFORTABLEUNCOMFORTABLE RISKYRISKY

    Visionary leaders tend to be passionate,committed and emotional

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    Visionary/Transformational LeadershipVisionary/Transformational Leadership

    TheThePygmalion PrinciplePygmalion Principle

    1.1. Leader expresses visionLeader expresses vision Beneficial future outcome

    Positive Expectations of achievement

    Energizes others

    22. Followers accept visionFollowers accept vision Vision does NOT have to be based on present realities

    or constraints

    Vision may be based onfalse assumptionsfalse assumptions

    3.3. Vision is achievedVision is achieved

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    ParetoPrincipleParetoPrinciple(80/20 rule)(80/20 rule)

    QUALITYVS QUANTITYQUALITYVS QUANTITY 80% results from 20%people80% results from 20%people

    80% of people get 20% of results

    80% wealth owned by 20%people80% wealth owned by 20%people

    80% of people share 20% of wealth

    80%natural events caused by 20% ofnature80%natural events caused by 20% ofnature

    80

    % of nature accounts for 20

    % natural events 80% of worksuccess from 20% of work80% of worksuccess from 20% of work

    80% of work accomplishes only 20% of results

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    EE44 or QUADEModelor QUADEModel

    Developing World-Class Leadership EnvironmentEnvironment

    Cultural

    legal

    complexity

    market

    stakeholders and customers

    ExpectationsExpectations internal

    external

    EfficienciesEfficiencies technologies

    labor pool

    resources

    EffectivenessEffectiveness talent

    vision

    good fortune

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    SituationalSituationalLeadershipLeadership

    Leading people in

    Projects

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    SituationalLeadershipSituationalLeadershipEvolution

    Influences

    Contingency Theory

    Expectation Theory

    1st Generation SL1st Generation SL Life-cycle theory of leadership

    2nd Generation SL2nd Generation SL

    SL II Leadership and the One-Minute Manager

    Developed by Dr. Ken Blanchard and BTD in 1980s

    3GSL3GSL

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    What is 3GSL or

    3rd Generation Situational Leadership? Modified SLIIModified SLII -15years ofexperiences

    Impact of various cultures in motivating and influencing others

    Impact of Globalization on leadership

    Changing peopleChanging people

    VISIONARYLEADERSHIPVISIONARYLEADERSHIP Transformational vision

    Energizing others to believe and achieve the vision

    Ethical character and positive values for Global culture Positive role model

    ChangingOrganizations or NationsChangingOrganizations or Nations

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    3GSL - World-class Visionary

    and Transformational Leadership Ethical Character and motives DO matter

    Leaders are always modeled and imitated

    Certain values and behaviors are important andcorrect in all organizations and cultures

    Leaders set the standards for others behavior

    Leader behaviors are magnified many-fold by

    subordinates Good behaviors benefit many people

    Bad behaviors cause much suffering

    Detailed look at

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    Detailed look at

    SITUATIONALSITUATIONAL

    LEADERSHIP IILEADERSHIP II

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    THEME OF SL II

    DONT WORK HARDERDONT WORK HARDER----------

    WORK SMARTERWORK SMARTER

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    3 Leader Skills in SLII

    1.1. FlexibilityFlexibilityin using variousleadership styles

    2.2. DiagnosingDiagnosingwhich style touse

    3.3. ContractingforLeadership StyleContractingforLeadership Style

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    Skill 1 Flexibility Recognition that there is no best style

    in leading or supervising others

    Theory X and Theory Y

    Directing and Supporting behaviors

    Developing the ability to use a varietyof leadership styles comfortably

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    Leadership Styles

    S3 Supporting S2 - Coaching

    S4 - Delegating S1 - Directing

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    The Four Leadership Styles

    S1 or Directing Leader provides instructions and closely supervises

    S2 or Coaching Leader directs but also explains, asks and supports

    S3 or Supporting

    Leader supports and shares decision-making

    S4 or Delegating Leader turns over decision-making and problem solving

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    Skill 2 -Diagnosing

    Knowing when to usethe correct leadership style

    When I slow done

    I go faster

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    Leadership Style depends on

    DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL People performance consists of

    Competence

    Commitment Competence (gained from training or experience)

    Knowledge

    Skills

    Commitment Confidence (work without supervision)

    Motivation (interest in and enthusiasm for)

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    Developmental Levelcont.

    D1 Enthusiastic beginners

    D2 Disillusioned learners

    D3 Reluctant contributor

    D4 Peak performer

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    Skill 2 DIAGNOSING and

    Developing People

    COMPETENCECOMPETENCE HIGH HIGH SOME LOW

    COMMITMENTCOMMITMENT HIGH VARIABLE LOW HIGH-------------------------------------------------------------

    DEVELOPMENT LEVEL D4 D3 D2 D1

    GrowingGrowing and Developing Peopleand Developing People

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    DevelopingPeak Performers

    Everyone hasPeak Performance

    potential

    You just need to know

    where they are coming from(developmental level)

    and meet them there(leadership style)

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    AT THISTIME, LIST THEMOSTIMPORTANT CONCEPTSYOU HAVEAT THISTIME, LIST THEMOSTIMPORTANT CONCEPTSYOU HAVE

    LEARNED SO FARLEARNED SO FAR

    List any questions you have on next page.

    5-Minute Check

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    CHECK ON LEARNING

    1. List some differences between managers

    and leaders.

    2. What are the 2 types of POWER?

    3. Which type of POWER do PMs absolutely

    have to learn?

    4. How do you do the Pygmalion Principle?5. Why does the Pygmalion Principle work?

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    CulturesLeadership and Cultural Differences

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    Cultures 3 types of cultural differences can affect a

    virtual team:

    1. National2. Organizational

    3. Functional

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    N i l C l

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    National Cultures Uncertainty Avoidance: the extent to which

    members are comfortable with uncertainty.

    High Avoidance:

    Seek details and plans,

    predictability, closure.

    Nervous when uncertain.

    Belgium, Japan, France,South Korea, Italy

    Low Avoidance:

    Less need for total

    definition. Comfortable

    with uncertainty.

    Great Britain, Hong Kong,Ireland, Canada, U.S.,

    India

    N i l C l

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    National Cultures Individualism Collectivism: The degree that

    people prefer to act as individuals or a group.

    Individualism:

    Loose ties between people;

    people take care of

    themselves; value personal

    time.

    Great Britain, Australia

    Italy, Germany, France,

    U.S.

    Collectivism:

    People form strong,

    groups; value team

    identity; put team first.

    Most Asian and CentralAmerican countries

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    N i l C l

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    National Cultures Long Term Short Term: Orientation

    toward immediate or long term returns.

    Long Term:

    Motivated by long term

    successes.

    Most Asian countries.

    Short Term:

    More impatient; need

    immediate reinforcement.

    English-speaking countries.

    N i l C l

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    National Cultures Context: How people view different

    communication cues.

    High Context:

    Messages have little

    meaning without context;

    prefer historical data and

    subjective opinions.

    Japan, China, Mexico,

    Greece, French Canada,

    Great Britain.

    Low Context :

    Prefer objective and fact-

    based messages; the

    message itself is sufficient.

    Germany, U.S., EnglishCanada

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    Organization CultureHierarchy Formal, governed by

    procedures Stability and control

    Low risk; no surprises

    Adhocracy (temporary)

    Dynamic; adaptive

    High risk taking andinnovation

    Try new things

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    Functional Culture Functional experts develop their own way

    of doing things.

    Mergers of diverse cultures produce conflictover best way to approach problems.

    HR, Marketing and Sales prefer more

    contextual information than I.T.,Engineering and Finance