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    ISO 14001

    Environmental Management SystemSelf-Assessment Checklist

    March 1996

    -Revised November 2000 to reflect numberingscheme of final standard-

    Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI)

    2000 L Street NW, Suite 710

    Washington, DC 20036

    Tel: 202-296-7449 Fax: 202-296-7442

    Email: [email protected]

    http://www.gemi.org

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    About the

    Global Environmental Management InitiativeThe Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) is a non-profit organization of leadingcompanies dedicated to helping business achieve environmental, health and safety

    excellence. Through the collaborative efforts of its members, GEMI promotes a worldwidebusiness ethic for environmental management and sustainable development through

    example and leadership. GEMIs member companies as of March 1996 are:

    AT&T

    AlliedSignal Inc.

    Anheuser-Busch Companies

    Apple Computer, Inc.

    Bristol-Myers Squibb CompanyBrowning-Ferris Industries

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation

    The Coca-Cola Company

    Colgate-Palmolive Company

    Coors Brewing Company

    Digital Equipment Corporation

    The Dow Chemical Company

    Duke Power Company

    The DuPont Company

    Eastman Kodak CompanyFlorida Power & Light

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation

    Halliburton Company

    Hughes Electronics Corporation

    Johnson & Johnson

    Merck & Company, Inc.

    Olin Corporation

    The Procter & Gamble Company

    The Southern Company

    TennecoUnion Carbide Corporation

    WMX Technologies, Inc.

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    Acknowledgments

    This checklist was developed under the auspices of the Tools Work Group, chaired byMichael T. Fisher of The Procter & Gamble Company. This project was directed by Vivian Paiof Johnson & Johnson.

    Representatives from several GEMI members companies participated in the preparation ofthis document. Most notably, the primary authors of the document are:

    Clinton Allen, Bristol-Myers Squibb CompanyPaul Cullen Beatley, Environmental Policy Centre Europe

    Thierry Dumortier, Environmental Policy Centre EuropeMichael Fisher, The Procter & Gamble CompanyMark Harvey, Georgia-Pacific CorporationPatricia Hintzel, TennecoMichele Malloy, TennecoJennifer Olha, Environmental Policy CenterVivian Pai, Johnson & JohnsonMaria Rasmussen, Eastman Kodak CompanyJohn Stier, Anheuser-Busch Companies

    The work group also received generous input and support from others, including:

    Tom Laboon, Environmental Policy CenterKen Millian, GEMI Executive DirectorRob Minter, The Southern CompanyGeorge Nagle, Bristol-Myers SquibbBill Sugar, Anheuser-Busch CompaniesVicki Sullivan, Southern Company ServicesClarice Taylor, Colgate-Palmolive Company

    In addition, Judy Hoffman of Weadon Progressive Printing provided design and printingservices.

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    Disclaimer

    The guidance in this checklist is based on the Draft International Standard ISO 14001, datedAugust 1995, and the professional judgment of the individual collaborators listed in theAcknowledgments. The comments incorporated in the primer are those of the individualcollaborators and not necessarily their organizations.

    The development and publication of this checklist does not, in any manner, advocate orendorse the approval, content, or registration of the ISO 14001 standard by GEMI or itsmember companies.

    Neither GEMI, nor the Law Companies Environmental Policy Center, nor the Law Companies

    Environmental Policy Centre Europe are responsible for any form of damage that may resultfrom the application of the guidance contained in this document.

    NOTE: On November, 2000 this document was revised to reflect the numbering scheme ofthe final standard ANSI/ISO 14001-1996

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    Table of Contents

    Purpose of this Checklist 1

    Introduction 1

    Elements of ISO 14001 2

    How to Use this Checklist 4

    Evaluation of Your Final Score 5

    4.2 Environmental Policy 8

    4.3 Planning 15

    4.4 Implementation and Operation 20

    4.5 Checking and Corrective Action 33

    4.6 Management Review 38

    Annex I Further Information 39

    Annex II Relationship between the ICC Business Charter

    Principles and the Elements found in ISO 14001

    55

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    ISO 14001

    Environmental Management SystemSelf-Assessment Checklist

    PURPOSE OF THIS CHECKLIST

    This checklist and primer has been developed to improve facility managers understanding of therequirements and elements of the environmental management system outlined in the ISO 14001draft international standard. It is designed to allow for a rapid self-assessment of an organizationor facility to determine how closely existing management practices and procedures correspond to

    the elements of the standard. The criteria of the draft standard have been rephrased in theformat of a simple questionnaire, with a three-part scoring system, as explained in this document.In addition to a brief guide to self-scoring, a fuller description of what is required by the standardscriteria is included in the appendix. In this format, even with limited background knowledge of theISO 14001 standard, a facility or other business manager can quickly review existing operations todetermine how they measure up to the standard. This in turn can serve as the starting point of agap analysis to identify management tools or system elements that might usefully beimplemented in the organization to help improve overall environmental performance.

    INTRODUCTION

    Representatives from some fifty countries around the globe have recently agreed to the draft international standard (DIS) onenvironmental management systems (ISO/DIS 14001) issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It isexpected that the standard will be formally adopted in 1996. It is intended that the implementation of an environmentalmanagement system (EMS) based on this standard will result in improved environmental performance. The standard is basedon the concept that the organization will periodically review and evaluate its environmental management system in order toidentify opportunities for improvement and their implementation. Improvements in its environmental management system areintended to result in additional improvements in environmental performance. When the ISO standard is formally adopted, itis anticipated that existing national EMS standards, such as BS 7750 (UK), IS 310, (Ireland), NF X30-200 (France) and UNE77-801(2)-94 (Spain) will be withdrawn and replaced by the single international EMS standard. Adoption by the EuropeanCouncil of ISO 14001 as the standard to implement Council Regulation EEC/1836/93 on a Community EnvironmentalManagement and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is not yet decided.

    Why introduce an environmental management system?

    The environment has become an important factor in the decision-making process of companies around the world.Environmental issues are becoming more complex and interconnected. Traditional ways of addressing environmental issues -in a reactive, ad-hoc, end-of-pipe manner - are proving to be highly inefficient. As competition increases within the expandingglobal market, environmental laws and regulations are setting new standards for business in every region of the world. Butgood environmental performance is not just a legal or moral obligation. It also makes good business sense. Reducingpollution means increasing efficiency and wasting fewer resources. Improved health and safety conditions result in a moreproductive workforce. Supplying goods and services that respect the environment helps to expand markets and improve sales.In short, companies become more competitive when they practice good environmental management.

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    On the other hand, the risks posed by mismanaging environmental issues are complex and varied. They include the obvious,such as damage to the environment with negative consequences for the overall standard of living. They can also includedamage to a companys reputation and a resulting loss of confidence among customers, neighbors and shareholders, the loss ofmarket share, and, of course, legal liabilities.

    Such risks cannot be dealt with on an ad-hoc basis. As with any financial or commercial risk, only a well-founded andproperly implemented management approach can provide a measure of confidence that good performance is not an accident andthat poor performance can be identified and rectified. By properly implementing an appropriate environmental managementsystem (EMS), any company, large or small, can ensure that they effectively manage environmental risks while identifyingand exploiting the myriad opportunities proper environmental management can bring. Such a systematic approach toenvironmental management is at the very heart of the ISO 14001 standard. This checklist is intended to allow managers ofindustrial facilities to review existing operations and management approaches against this standard to determine how well theymeasure up to what is soon to be considered as state-of-the-art in effective approaches to environmental management.

    ELEMENTS OF ISO 14001

    ISO/DIS 14001 is one of a series of emerging international environmental management standards aimed at promoting

    continual improvement in company environmental performance through the adoption and implementation of an environmentalmanagement system. The (draft) standard specifies the core elements of an EMS, but contains only those elements that maybe objectively audited for certification or self-declaration purposes. A companion guidance standard, ISO/DIS 14004 includesexamples, descriptions and options that aid in the implementation of an EMS and in integrating the EMS into overallmanagement practices. It is not intended for use by certification/registration bodies.

    ISO/DIS 14001 defines an overall environmental management system, closely modeled on the ISO 9000 quality systemsstandard, and covers the following key elements:

    Establishment of an appropriate environmental policy that is documented and communicated to employees and madeavailable to the public, and which includes a commitment to continual improvement and pollution prevention, regulatorycompliance and a framework for setting objectives;

    A planning phase that covers the identification of the environmental aspects of the organizations activities, identificationand access to legal requirements, establishment and documentation of objectives and targets consistent with the policy, andestablishment of a program for achieving said targets and objectives (including the designation of responsible individuals,necessary means and timeframes);

    Implementation and operation of the EMS including the definition, documentation and communication of roles andresponsibilities, provision of appropriate training, assurance of adequate internal and external communication, writtenmanagement system documentation as well as appropriate document control procedures, documented procedures foroperational controls, and documented and communicated emergency response procedures;

    Checking and corrective action procedures, including procedures for regular monitoring and measurement of keycharacteristics of the operations and activities, procedures for dealing with situations of non-conformity, specific recordmaintenance procedures and procedures for auditing the performance of the EMS;

    Periodic management reviews of the overall EMS to ensure its suitability, adequacy and effectiveness in light ofchanging circumstances.

    The EMS as outlined in ISO 14001 provides a structured process for the achievement of continual improvement, the rate andextent of which is determined by the organization in light of economic and other circumstances. Although some improvementin environmental performance can be expected due to the adoption of a systematic approach, it should be understood that theEMS is a tool which enables the organization to achieve and systematically control the level of environmental performancethat it sets itself. The establishment of an EMS will not, in itself, necessarily result in an immediate reduction of adverseenvironmental impact. Indeed, care needs to be taken that the mere establishment of an EMS does not lull the organizationinto a false sense of security. But effectively used, an EMS should enable an organization to improve its environmentalperformance and avoid or reduce adverse environmental impacts over time.

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    An organization has the freedom and flexibility to define the boundaries of its system and may choose to implement an EMSthroughout the entire organization, or within specific operating units or activities of the organization. If it is implemented fora specific operating unit or activity, policies and procedures developed by other parts of the organization can be used to meetthe requirements of an environmental management system, provided that they are applicable to the specific operating unit oractivity that will be subject to the environmental management system. The level of detail and complexity of the

    environmental management system, the extent of documentation and resources dedicated to it will be dependent on the size ofthe organization and the nature of its activities. This may be the case in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Integration of environmental matters with the overall management system can contribute to the effective implementation of theenvironmental management system, as well as to the efficiency and clarity of roles.

    In many aspects, the ISO 14001 standard shares common management system principles with the ISO 9000 series of qualitysystem standards. In the beginning of the ISO 14001 standard, it states that organizations may elect to use an existingmanagement system consistent with the ISO 9000 series as a basis for its environmental management system. It should beunderstood, however, that the application of various elements of the management system may differ due to different purposesand different interested parties. While quality management systems deal with customer needs, environmental managementsystems address the needs of a broad range of interested parties and the evolving needs of society for environmentalprotection.

    Related Standards Under Development

    The ISO 14000 family of standards also includes other draft standards related to environmental management systems that willsoon be available for trial. These include standards on environmental auditing and related environmental investigations,environmental labeling, environmental performance evaluation, life-cycle assessment, terms and definitions and environmentalaspects in product standards.

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    HOW TO USE THIS CHECKLIST

    On the following pages are a series of questions to identify to what extent your environmental management system iscomplete in comparison to the requirements set in the ISO 14001 standard.

    To facilitate answering the questions, there is a table beneath each question with three columns of examples. Each columncorresponds to a score. The examples in the first column illustrate a situation which does not comply at all with therequirement and has the score 0. The examples in the second column illustrate a situation where the requirement is more orless fulfilled, but where there is still room for improvement and a score 1 applies. Finally in the third column, theexamples illustrate a situation in which the requirement appears to be completely fulfilled and a score 2 applies.

    How to Score

    It is possible to calculate a score by using one of two methods. In the first method, you should begin with the first column todetermine if the situation described therein accurately reflects the situation in your organization or facility. If not, then proceedto the second column and make the same decision. Eventually, move on to the third column and ask the same questions. Inthis way, you build progressively on your score.

    0 1 2

    Verify whether one of theparagraphs in this box is applicableto the situation in yourorganization.

    If this is the case, your score forthis question will be 0.

    If this is not the case, proceed innext column.

    Verify whether any of the statements inthis box is applicable to the situationin your organization.

    If this is the case, your score for thisquestion will be at least 1.

    Proceed to the next column, toverify whether your score is evenbetter or to identify the areas whereyou could improve yourenvironmental management system.

    Verify whether your organizationconforms withallthe paragraphs inthis box.

    If this is the case, your score for thisquestion will be 2.Congratulations, you successfullyimplemented this aspect of theenvironmental management system.

    If this is not the case, your scoreremains 1. You have identified an

    area where your environmentalmanagement system can beimproved.

    Comments: Note your comments here on a) the adequacy and comprehensiveness of themanagement system elements currently in place and b) management systemelements lacking or requiring improvement that the organization will require

    for ISO 14001 certification.Score: _______________

    Write your score in the space provided, and note any comments or observations in the appropriate space (e.g., any actions tobe taken to improve situation or score.) Alternatively, a process of elimination can be used. In this case, begin with the thirdcolumn and determine whether all or some of the situations described apply to your organization. If all statements apply, give

    your organization a 2. If none, or only some, of the statements apply, move then to the middle column. If any of thesestatements apply to your organization, then assign a score of 1. If none of these statements apply, then assign a score of0.

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    EVALUATION OF YOUR FINAL SCORE

    This checklist contains a total of 31 questions in five different sections, corresponding to the five guiding principles listed inthe ISO 14004 standard. A perfect score of 62 (i.e., every question received a score of 2) would, if responded to thoroughly

    and honestly, indicate that the organization has all of the requisite EMS elements and procedures called for in the draftstandard, sufficiently implemented to adhere to the standard.

    A score of 0 would likely seldom, if ever, occur, since even the most rudimentary elements of mere legal compliance wouldnormally oblige the use of a minimum of management practices. It is important to bear in mind that how well anorganization implements the standards requirements is not the level of performance achieved using the standard, but thecompleteness and adequacy of the procedures and systems established to achieve that performance. Thus, for example, themere fact that all employees are currently aware of their environmental responsibilities is insufficient under the terms of thestandard. This could actually be a chance situation in the absence of defined and documented procedures to ensure that allemployees (current and future) are made aware of these responsibilities.

    For ease of interpreting scores, we have broken down the standard into its principle elements and have established a ratingsystem based on three ranges of possible score for each, as follows.

    Principle 1: Commitment and Policy

    Score 0-5 The organization either has no environmental policy, or its policy lacks most of the key elements, suchas a commitment to continual improvement, required to fulfill the terms of the standard.

    Score 6-10 The organization has an environmental policy that meets many, but not all, of the requirementsestablished under the standard.

    Score 11-14 Top management has established and documented an environmental policy that meets most, if not all ofthe criteria laid down in the standard. This policy takes into account most, if not all, of theenvironmental aspects and is well communicated, both inside and outside of the organization. However,if the policy is not appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental impacts of the organizationsactivities, products or services, subsequent development of the EMS might be compromised.

    Principle 2: Planning

    Score 0-3 The organization has focused little, if any effort on identifying its relevant environmental aspects andsetting achievable objectives and targets; its environmental management program is insufficient toimplement the environmental policy.

    Score 3-6 The organization has made progress in identifying most of its environmental aspects as well as the legalrequirement to which it is subject, and might have established some objectives and targets which itsenvironmental management program is designed to achieve, but much progress is still required.

    Score 6-10 Most, if not all, of the required procedures exist to identify how its activities, products and/or servicesimpact the environment, and to keep up to date on changing regulations. Measurable targets andobjectives have been set for most, if not all appropriate levels of the organization; an action program

    exists to ensure their attainment. On the other hand, if clear, documented targets and objectives have notbeen established on the basis of a fairly complete identification of all environmental aspects of thebusiness, its environmental action program may well overlook certain key issues of concern.

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    Principle 3: Implementation and Operation

    Score 1-8 Existing procedures do not fully take into account all environmental aspects at all levels and activities ofthe organization. Specific responsibilities and accountabilities might not be sufficiently communicatedthroughout the organization. Sufficient resources and technical competencies might yet be lacking.

    Score 9-18 Many procedures to achieve the policys objectives and targets exist, but they might not includeemergency situations. Responsibilities and accountabilities for their implementation have been assignedfor the most part, and much, but not all of the needed resources requirements have been made available.

    Score 19-26 Most, if not all, areas of responsibility have been assigned, and resources allocated. Operating and otherprocedures have been developed, documented and communicated. Personnel are trained in their use andin complying with their environmental responsibilities. Document controls exist to ensure that systemsare kept up to date. But, if operations and activities associated with or causing significant environmentalaspects have not been identified (see Principle 2) or if documented procedures have not been establishedto ensure that they are performed in accordance with the environmental policy, implementation will notmeet the terms of this standard

    Principle 4: Checking and Corrective Action

    Score 1-3 Few, if any procedures have been developed or implemented for checking the performance of the EMSand its component elements; and thus, areas of non-conformance cannot be adequately identified; as aresult, corrective or preventive measures cannot be effectively taken.

    Score 4-7 The organization has established many of the measurement and evaluation procedures required by thestandard, and might have some of the key elements for dealing with situations of non-conformity. Someimportant records are maintained, and EMS audits might be carried out. However, much improvement isstill warranted to conform to the standard.

    Score 8-10 The organization has implemented the majority of procedures and programs described in the standard toeffectively and regularly monitor and measure the applicable characteristics of operations and activities, aswell as to detect and correct areas of non-conformity. Adequate procedures exist for management of

    most, if not all, appropriate records, and a regular EMS audit program has been established. Even with ahigh score, however, the overall performance in meeting these criteria will be placed in serious doubt ifthe organization does not have a program and documented procedures for periodic audits of the EMS,which are adequate to ensure that conformity with policies, objectives and targets is indeed systematic,and not accidental

    Principle 5: Management Review

    Since there is only one question in this section, your score for the question posed will give an adequate indication of yourscore for the section. In any event, the organization cannot substantively fulfill this requirement if it does not periodicallyreview the basic assumptions upon which its EMS is based.

    Overall Score

    A high score in any section is not necessarily a sign that the requirement is essentially met, if the core key criteria in thatsection is not met. Moreover, because all principles and elements are closely interlinked, a low score in any given sectioncould place in doubt the higher scores achieved elsewhere. On the other hand, scoring at least 1 or 2 in each question shouldgive the organization the confidence that its management approaches are compatible with the EMS as described in ISO 14001.

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    4.2 Environmental PolicyPrinciple 1: Commitment and Policy The environmental policy is the driver for

    implementing and improving the organizationsenvironmental management system.

    4.2 HAS TOP MANAGEMENT DEFINED THE ORGANIZATIONSENVIRONMENTAL POLICY?

    0 1 2

    Top management has not defined anenvironmental policy yet.

    An environmental policy was issued,but it is not clear that it was definedand endorsed by top management.

    The environmental policy has not beendefined within the context of the

    environmental policy of the broadercorporate body (if any) of which theorganization is a part, and has notreceived the endorsement of that body(see Annex A to the Standard, A.4.2).

    Top management has defined theorganizations environmental policy ina written document and made it public.

    The environmental policy has beendefined and documented within the

    context of the environmental policy ofthe broader corporate body (e.g., theparent company or other overallorganization, if any) and has theendorsement of that body (see Annex Ato the Standard, A.4.2).

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.2.B DOES THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY INCLUDE A COMMITMENT TOCONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT AND PREVENTION OF POLLUTION?

    0 1 2

    The environmental policy does notinclude a clear commitment tocontinual improvement andprevention of pollution.

    The environmental policy does notcommit to both continual improvementand prevention of pollution, but onlycommits to one of these.

    The environmental policy contains aclear commitment to pursue continualimprovement in environmentalperformance by putting in place aneffective environmental managementsystem.

    The policy commits to the preventionof pollution.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.2.C DOES THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY INCLUDE A COMMITMENT TOCOMPLY WITH RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND

    REGULATIONS, AND TO OTHER REQUIREMENTS TO WHICH THEORGANIZATION SUBSCRIBES ?

    0 1 2

    The environmental policy does notinclude a commitment to complywith relevant environmentallegislation and regulations, or toother requirements to which theorganization subscribes.

    The environmental policy includes acommitment to comply with relevantenvironmental legislation andregulations, but does not mention anycommitment to any other requirementsto which the organization subscribes.

    The policy includes a commitment to

    adhere to or comply with otherrequirements to which the organizationsubscribes (e.g. Responsible Care)but does not explicitly commit theorganization to comply with relevantlegislation.

    The environmental policy includes aclear commitment to comply withrelevant environmental legislation andregulations, as well as to all otherrequirements to which the organizationsubscribes (such as the ICC BusinessCharter for Sustainable Development,for example).

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.2.D DOES THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROVIDE THE FRAMEWORK FORSETTING AND REVIEWING OF ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND

    TARGETS?

    0 1 2

    The environmental policy is notspecific enough to guide the settingof environmental objectives andtargets.

    The policy has been written in sucha way that may leave its readersconfused as to its overall goals andobjectives.

    The policy does not specify anycommitments.

    The environmental policy is specificenough to guide the setting ofenvironmental objectives and targets inmany of the environmental aspects ofrelevance to the organization. It doesnot, however, provide sufficientguidance with regard to all keyenvironmental aspects.

    Overall, the environmental policy issufficiently clear as to be capable ofbeing understood by most interestedparties, but there are some portions thatmight be misunderstood or which havecaused confusion.

    The environmental policy is clear andspecific enough to guide the setting ofenvironmental objectives and targets.

    The policy is sufficiently clear to becapable of being understood byinterested parties, including thoseresponsible for reviewingenvironmental targets and objectives.

    .

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.2.F IS THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC ?

    0 1 2The environmental policy is notmade available to the public.

    The environmental policy is madeavailable to some members of thepublic (provided, for example, thepublic affairs or legal departmentapprove its dissemination).

    The environmental policy is freelyavailable to any member of the publicwho requests it.

    Any amendments or modifications tothe policy are also made available tothe public.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.3 PlanningPrinciple 2: Planning An organization should formulate a plan to

    fulfill Its environmental policy.

    4.3.1.A. Is there a procedure to identify the environmental aspects of yourbusiness over which you have control or influence and todetermine actual or potential significant impacts on theenvironment?

    0 1 2

    There is no procedure to identifythe environmental aspects of thebusiness.

    There is a procedure to identify theenvironmental aspects of the activities,products or services over which theorganization has control or influence,

    but not all three.Existing procedures are insufficient todetermine which environmental aspectshave or can have a significant impacton the environment (Note: informationalready developed for regulatory orother purposes may be used in thisprocess).

    If the organization does not have anexisting environmental managementsystem, it has not conducted a reviewto establish its current position withregard to the environment (see Annex A

    to the Standard, A.4.3.1).

    The organization does not keepinformation regarding itsenvironmental aspects up to date.

    There is a procedure to identify thesignificant environmental aspects of thebusiness, including activities, productsand services and it has been determined

    which of the environmental aspects ofthe business have or can have asignificant impact on the environment.

    If the organization did not have anexisting environmental managementsystem, its first step in this processwas to establish its current positionwith regard to the environment bymeans of a review (see Annex A to theStandard, A.4.3.1).

    The process for identifying significantenvironmental aspects takes intoaccount the cost and time of

    undertaking the analysis and theavailability of reliable data (see AnnexA to the Standard, A.4.3.1).

    The analysis of significantenvironmental aspects of theorganization takes into account theinputs and outputs associated with itscurrent and relevant past activities,products and services (see Annex A tothe Standard, A.4.3.1).

    The information is kept up to date.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.3.1.B. ARE ASPECTS RELATED TO THESE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTSCONSIDERED IN SETTING ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES?

    0 1 2

    The process of settingenvironmental objectives was not,or does not, take aspects related tosignificant environmental impactsinto consideration.

    The process of setting environmentalobjectives has taken or takes intoconsideration aspects related tosignificant environmental impacts foractivities or products or services, butnot all three. (Note: the organizationmay take into account the degree ofpractical control it may have over theenvironmental aspects beingconsidered).

    The process of setting environmentalobjectives has taken or takes intoconsideration aspects related tosignificant environmental impactsrelated to its activities, products andservices.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.3.2 DO YOU HAVE A PROCEDURE TO IDENTIFY AND HAVE ACCESS TOLEGAL REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL

    ASPECTS OF YOUR ACTIVITIES, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES ?

    0 1 2

    There is no documentation onenvironmental legislation andregulations applicable to theorganization, nor of the otherenvironmental requirements towhich the organization subscribes.

    No procedure exists to ensure thatthe organization will identify andaccess all new and modified legal orother requirements applicable toactivities, products or services.

    There is a procedure to identify all legalrequirements that are applicable to theenvironmental aspects of theorganizations activities or products orservices, but not all three

    Procedures exist to identify and accessmost legal and other requirements, butnot all.

    Procedures exist to identify, access andupdate information relative to the non-regulatory environmental programs towhich the organization subscribes, butnot the legal requirements.

    There is a procedure to systematicallyidentify all new legal requirements thatapply to the environmental aspects ofthe organizations activities, productsor services.

    The procedure also systematicallyidentifies modifications to existinglegal and other requirements.

    The procedure ensures access to allexisting, new and modified legalrequirements.

    The procedure also ensuresidentification, access and updating ofother, non-regulatory requirements towhich the organization subscribes.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.3.3 HAVE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS BEENESTABLISHED AND DOCUMENTED AND ARE THERE PROCEDURES FOR

    MAINTAINING THESE DOCUMENTS?

    0 1 2

    No environmental objectives andtargets have been established by theorganization. No environmentalpolicy has been established.

    Environmental objectives and targetshave been established by theorganization, but not documented.

    The environmental objectives andtargets were not established withconsideration of legal or otherrequirements, significant environmentalaspects, technological options, orinterested parties.

    No procedure exists to ensure that theseobjectives and targets are reviewed andmaintained regularly.

    Environmental objectives and targetshave been established and documentedbut do not cover each and everyrelevant function and level within theorganization.

    Targets and objectives includeconsideration of end-of-pipetechnological options and compliancewith legal and other requirements, but

    do not reflect a commitment topollution prevention.

    Targets and objectives take intoconsideration the organizationsfinancial, operational and businessrequirements but not the views ofinterested parties.

    Environmental objectives and targetshave been developed at each relevantfunction and level within theorganization.

    The objectives are specific and thetargets are measurable whereverpracticable.

    The objectives and targets are

    consistent with the environmentalpolicy and reflect a commitment topollution prevention.

    The objectives and targets are inalignment with the significantenvironmental impacts associated withthe organizations activities, productsor services.

    The organization has taken intoconsideration, when establishing (andreviewing) its objectives, legal andother requirements, technologicaloptions, financial, operational and

    business requirements, as well as theviews of interested parties.

    There is a procedure to ensure theobjectives and targets are reviewed andupdated regularly.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4 Implementation and OperationPrinciple 3: Implementation For effective implementation an organization should develop

    the capabilities and support mechanisms necessary toachieve its environmental policy, objectives and targets.

    4.4.1.A HAVE ROLES, RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITIES BEEN DEFINED,DOCUMENTED AND COMMUNICATED ?

    0 1 2

    Top management have notappointed (a) specific environmentalmanagement representative(s).

    Top management have appointed (a)specific environmental managementrepresentative(s) but the roles,responsibilities and authority of thisindividual (these individuals) havenot been defined or documented.

    Roles, responsibilities, andauthorities of other operationalmanagement and staff functions forimplementing the various elementsof the environmental managementsystem have been defined but havenot been documented.

    The roles, responsibilities, andauthorities of other operationalmanagement and staff functions havenot been communicated to personnel.

    Top management have appointed (a)specific environmental managementrepresentative(s).

    The environmental managementrepresentative(s) has a defined role,

    responsibility and authority for ensuringthat the requirements of theenvironmental management system areestablished, implemented and maintainedin accordance with the ISO 14001standard and for reporting performance ofthe EMS to top management.

    Roles, responsibilities, and authorities ofother operational management and stafffunctions for implementing the variouselements of the environmentalmanagement system have been defined,documented and communicated topersonnel in order to facilitatemanagement.

    The environmental managementrepresentative reports on the performanceof the environmental management systemto top management. These reports areused by top management to review theenvironmental management system andthe basis for its improvement.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.1.B DOES MANAGEMENT PROVIDE THE RESOURCES ESSENTIAL TO THEIMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROL OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ?

    0 1 2

    Management has not identified theresources essential to theimplementation and control of theenvironmental management system.

    Resources may include humanresources, specialized skills,technology, equipment, andfinancial resources but specialized

    skills are lacking.

    Management has identified some of theresources essential to theimplementation and control of theenvironmental management system,but specialized skills are lacking (i.e.,technology, equipment, and financialresources).

    Management has allocated some of the

    essential resources, such as human butnot financial.

    Management has identified theresources essential to theimplementation and control of theenvironmental management system.

    Management provides all the resourcesessential to the implementation andcontrol of the environmentalmanagement system.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.2.A HAVE ALL TRAINING NEEDS BEEN IDENTIFIED ?

    0 1 2No procedures have beenestablished to identify trainingneeds.

    Training needs have not beenidentified.

    Procedures have been established toidentify training needs.

    None or only some of the concernedpersonnel have received training.

    Procedures have not been established toensure that contractors working on theorganizations behalf are able todemonstrate that their employees havethe requisite training.

    Procedures have been established toidentify training needs (see A.4.2)

    Procedures have been developed toensure that all personnel whose workmay create a significant impact uponthe environment, has receivedappropriate environmental training.

    The procedures also require thatcontractors working on theorganizations behalf are able todemonstrate that their employees have

    the requisite training.A system has been established toperiodically review the procedures usedto identify training needs and ensurethat proper training is provided.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.2.B HAVE PROCEDURES BEEN ESTABLISHED TO MAKE EMPLOYEES ORMEMBERS AT EACH RELEVANT FUNCTION AND LEVEL AWARE OF

    ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ?

    0 1 2

    No procedures have beenestablished to make personnel ateach relevant function and levelaware of environmental issues.

    Procedures have not been established toensure all personnel at each relevantfunction and level are aware ofenvironmental issues.

    Only the personnel in certaindepartments have been made aware ofenvironmental issues.

    Only the personnel in certain

    departments are made aware of theactual or potential significantenvironmental impacts of their workactivities and the environmentalbenefits of improved personalperformance.

    There is an overall awareness ofenvironmental issues; however, not allpersonnel are made aware of thepotential consequences of departurefrom specified operating procedures.

    Relevant training is provided, but noprocedure exists for ensuring that all

    new employees receive appropriatetraining and awareness.

    Procedures exist to ensure that allrelevant personnel receive training toincrease awareness of the importance ofconformance with the requirements ofthe environmental management system.

    Procedures exist to ensure that allemployees are made aware of the actualor potential significant environmentalimpacts of their work activities and theenvironmental benefits of improvedpersonal performance.

    All employees are made aware of theirroles and responsibilities in achievingconformance with the environmentalpolicy and procedures and with therequirements of the environmentalmanagement system, includingemergency preparedness and responserequirements.

    All employees are made aware of thepotential consequences of departure

    from specified operating procedures.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.2.C HAS IT BEEN ENSURED THAT PERSONNEL PERFORMING TASKSWHICH CAN CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ARE

    COMPETENT?

    0 1 2

    Appropriate educational, training orexperience requirements have notbeen identified.

    Management has determined the levelof experience, competence and trainingnecessary to ensure the capability ofpersonnel, especially those carrying outspecialized environmental managementfunctions.

    Not all personnel performing therelevant tasks meet the minimumeducational/training or experiencerequirements identified bymanagement.

    Management has determined the levelof experience, competence and trainingnecessary to ensure the capability ofpersonnel, especially those carrying outspecialized environmental managementfunctions.

    It has been ensured that personnelperforming tasks which may causesignificant environmental impacts havethe required competence.

    The level of required competence ofsuch personnel has been determined onthe basis of appropriate education,training and/or experience.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.3 HAVE APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES BEEN ESTABLISHED FORINTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS REGARDING THE

    ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTSYSTEM ?

    0 1 2

    No procedures have beenestablished for internal nor externalcommunications regarding theenvironmental aspects and theenvironmental management system.

    Some procedures have been establishedfor internal communications betweenthe various levels and functions of theorganization, but not for externalcommunication.

    Procedures have been established forreceiving relevant communications

    from external interested parties, butthere are no procedures to document orrespond to communications withexternal parties.

    There are no procedures to periodicallyreview the procedures used for internaland external communications.

    Procedures exist with regard toreceiving , documenting andresponding to external sourcesconcerning the environmentalmanagement system, but not regardingits environmental aspects

    Procedures have been established forinternal communications between thevarious levels and functions of theorganization.

    Procedures have been established forreceiving, documenting and respondingto relevant communications from

    external interested parties on itsEnvironmental Management System.

    The organization has considered thevarious possible processes for externalcommunication on its significantenvironmental aspects and has recordedits decision in this regard.

    All these procedures are reviewed andadapted to changing circumstances andperceptions.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.4 IS THERE DOCUMENTATION WHICH DESCRIBES THE ENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENT SYSTEM ?

    0 1 2

    The core elements of theenvironmental management systemhave not been described anddocumented.

    The core elements of the environmentalmanagement system have beenidentified, described and documentedbut the interaction or relationshipsbetween the different elements is notdocumented.

    This documentation does not providedirection on where to find or classifyrelated environmental documentation.

    The core elements of the environmentalmanagement system have beenidentified, described and documented.

    The interactions between the coreelements of the environmentalmanagement system have beendescribed.

    These descriptions have beendocumented in paper or electronicform.

    This documentation provides directionon where to find or classify relatedenvironmental documentation.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.5.A HAVE PROPER DOCUMENT CONTROL PROCEDURES BEENESTABLISHED ?

    0 1 2

    Management has not identifieddocuments that must be maintainedand controlled.

    There are no procedures forcontrolling and maintainingdocuments.

    Management has identified thedocuments required by ISO 14001 thatmust be maintained and controlled.

    Certain document control procedureshave been established.

    It has not been determined who isresponsible or authorized for thecreation and modification of thevarious types of documents.

    There is no system in place for thedocuments to be periodically reviewedand revised.

    No defined procedures exits to ensurethat the current versions of relevantdocuments are not available at alllocations where operations essential tothe effective functioning of the systemare performed.

    Management have established andmaintain procedures for controlling alldocuments required by ISO 14001 inorder to ensure that they can be located.

    Procedures exist to ensure that alldocumentation is periodically reviewedand revised as necessary, and approvedfor adequacy by authorized personnel.

    Procedures exist to ensure that current,legible versions of relevant documentsare available at all locations whereoperations essential to the effectivefunctioning of the system areperformed.

    Procedures exist to ensure that obsoletedocuments are promptly removed fromall points of issue and all points ofuse, or otherwise assured againstunintended use.

    Procedures exist to ensure that anyobsolete documents retained for legaland/or knowledge preservation

    purposes are suitably identified.Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.5.B. ARE ALL DOCUMENTS IN A PROPER STATE AND FORMAT ?

    0 1 2Available documents are barelylegible if at all (e.g., copies ofcopies, fax documents that areunclear, etc.)

    Available documents are not (or notall) dated to indicate originals orrevisions.

    No procedures or responsibilitieshave been established governing thecreation or revision ofEnvironmental Management

    System documents.

    All documentation is legible andreadily identifiable.

    All documents are dated, with dates ofrevision.

    Different formats for like documentsexist; and, documents are not readilyidentifiable.

    Obsolete, outdated documents are notdiscarded.

    All documentation is legible.

    All documents are dated, with dates ofrevision.

    All documents are readily identifiable.

    All documents are maintained in anorderly manner.

    All documents are maintained for aperiod specified in the documents.

    Clear instructions are provided fordocument maintenance, includingupdating or replacement with revisionsand the proper disposition of obsoletedocuments.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.6.B HAVE SUCH OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES BEEN PLANNED IN SUCH AWAY AS TO ENSURE THEY ARE CARRIED OUT UNDER SPECIFIED

    CONDITIONS?

    0 1 2

    Procedures have not beenestablished for any of the operationsand activities associated with theidentified significant environmentalaspects in line with its policy,objectives and targets.

    Procedures have been established formost, but not all of the operations andactivities associated with the identifiedsignificant environmental aspects inline with its policy, objectives andtargets.

    Procedures are not periodicallyreviewed.

    Procedures are not communicated tosuppliers and contractors.

    Operating criteria is not stipulated inthe procedures.

    Documented procedures have beenestablished for all the operations andactivities, including maintenance.

    Operating criteria have been stipulatedin these procedures (e.g. one is allowedto proceed with air emissions from aproduction process, if certain thresholdlimits are not exceeded).

    Documented procedures have beenestablished for goods and services usedby the organization that are related tothe significant environmental aspects.

    Relevant procedures are communicatedto suppliers and contractors.

    All procedures are reviewedperiodically and adapted whennecessary.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.7.A HAVE PROPER PROCEDURES BEEN ESTABLISHED TO IDENTIFY THEPOTENTIAL FOR AND TO RESPOND TO ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCY

    SITUATIONS?

    0 1 2

    There are no procedures in place toidentify the potential for or torespond to accidents and emergencysituations.

    Procedures have been established toidentify the potential for environmentalincidents, accidents and emergencysituations.

    Procedures have not been defined foremergency response in all identifiedpotential situations.

    There is no system to periodicallyreview and revise the procedures.

    Procedures have not been defined forproactively preventing emergencies inidentified potential situations or formitigating environmental impactsassociated with such emergencies (e.g.,fire response procedures do not includespill prevention, control orcountermeasure procedures).

    Procedures have been established toidentify the potential for and torespond to environmental incidents,accidents and emergency situations.

    The procedures also focus onpreventing and mitigating theenvironmental impacts that may be

    associated with accidents or emergencysituations.

    After the occurrence of accidents oremergency situations, the proceduresare reviewed and where necessaryrevised to prevent re-occurrence.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.4.7.B ARE SUCH PROCEDURES PERIODICALLY TESTED AND REVIEWED /REVISED AFTER TESTS OR AFTER ACTUAL INCIDENTS? SITUATIONS?

    0 1 2

    No tests have ever been carried outof the emergency responseprocedures.

    One or two tests have been carried outof certain procedures, but tests are notregularly (i.e., periodically) carried out.

    No procedure exists for investigatingaccidents or incidents with a view torevising emergency response proceduresas appropriate.

    Tests of emergency responseprocedures are regularly (i.e.,periodically) carried out.

    Specific procedures have beenestablished and implemented for thereview of performance of such tests andtheir efficiency in the situations forwhich they are designed.

    Specific procedures exist and areimplemented for the systematicinvestigation of all accidents andincidents impacting the environmentand foresee steps to appropriaterevision/corrective measures.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.5 Checking and Corrective ActionPrinciple 4: Checking and Corrective Action An organization should measure, monitor and

    evaluate its environmental performance.

    4.5.1.A HAVE PROCEDURES BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR MONITORING ANDMEASURING ON A REGULAR BASIS THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF

    THE OPERATIONS AND ACTIVITIES THAT CAN HAVE A SIGNIFICANT

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?

    0 1 2

    There are no procedures to monitorthe key characteristics (e.g.,quantity and characteristics ofeffluent discharges, air emissions,solid and hazardous waste; water,energy use; quantity of waste perunit of product produced, etc.) ofthe operations and activities thatcan have a significantenvironmental impact.

    Required monitoring equipment isnot controlled to ensure propercalibration and maintenance.

    No procedures exist to verifycompliance with relevantenvironmental legislation and

    regulations.

    Procedures have been established formonitoring on a regular basis some ofthe key characteristics of the operationsand activities that can have asignificant environmental impact.

    Procedures for either of the above havenot been documented.

    There is no system in place toperiodically review these procedures.

    The results of such monitoring are notdocumented or recorded.

    Procedures have been established formonitoring on a regular basis the keycharacteristics of the operations andactivities that can have a significantenvironmental impact.

    The procedures require the recording ofinformation to track performance,relevant operational controls andconformance with the organizationsobjectives and targets.

    These procedures have beendocumented and are reviewed regularly.

    Monitoring equipment has beencalibrated and is maintained. Therecords of this process are retainedaccording to the organizations

    procedures.

    Comments:

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    4.5.3 HAVE PROCEDURES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION, MAINTENANCE ANDDISPOSITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RECORDS BEEN ESTABLISHED AND

    MAINTAINED ?

    0 1 2

    There are no procedures for theidentification, maintenance and/ordisposition of environmentalrecords.

    Procedures for the identification,maintenance and disposition of someenvironmental records have beenestablished.

    Certain environmental records arestored and maintained in such a waythat they are readily retrievable andprotected against damage, deteriorationor loss.

    Retention times are not alwaysestablished or recorded.

    Not all records relative to conformanceto this standard are maintained.

    Procedures for the identification,maintenance and disposition ofenvironmental records have beenestablished and are maintained.

    The environmental records amongstothers including training records andthe results of audits and reviews, aswell as the extent to which plannedobjectives and targets have been met(see Annex A to the Standard, A.5.3).

    These environmental records arelegible, identifiable and traceable to theactivity, product or service involved.

    Environmental records are stored andmaintained in such a way that they arereadily retrievable and protected againstdamage, deterioration or loss.

    The retention times of the variousenvironmental records are establishedand recorded.

    All records required to demonstrateconformity to this standard (includingregulatory compliance) are maintained.

    Comments:

    Score: _______________

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    4.5.4 DOES THE ORGANIZATION HAVE (A) PROGRAM(S) AND PROCEDURESFOR PERIODIC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AUDITS ?

    0 1 2

    No audit procedures have beenestablished.

    Audit procedures do not include anevaluation of the environmentalmanagement system (e.g., auditsconcentrate only on compliancewith regulatory requirements).

    A program and procedures for periodicenvironmental management systemaudits have been established.

    The audits are aimed at determiningwhether or not the environmentalmanagement system has been properlyimplemented and maintained andwhether the environmental managementsystem conforms to plannedarrangements. However, the

    periodicity of these audits or the auditprogram overall does not reflect therelated potential environmentalimportance of the activity concerned, ordoes not take into account previousaudits (if any).

    Audit procedures are not fullycomprehensive (e.g., they do not coverall of the following: scope, frequencyand methodologies, responsibilitiesand requirements for conducting auditsand reporting results).

    The procedures do not ensure that

    information on the results of the auditsis provided to management.

    A program and procedures for periodicenvironmental management audits havebeen established.

    The audit program is aimed atdetermining whether or not theenvironmental management systemconforms to planned arrangements forenvironmental management andwhether or not the environmentalmanagement system has been properly

    implemented and maintained.The procedures ensure that informationon the results of the audits is providedto management.

    The audit program, includingfrequency audits, is based on theenvironmental importance of theactivity concerned and the results ofprevious audits.

    The audit procedures cover the scope ofthe audit, frequency andmethodologies, required auditor

    competencies as well as theresponsibilities associated withmanaging and conducting audits, andrequirements for conducting audits andreporting results

    Comments:

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    4.6 Management ReviewPrinciple 5: Management Review An organization should review and continually improve its

    environmental management system, with the objective of improving itsoverall environmental performance.

    4.6 HAS TOP MANAGEMENT REVIEWED THE ENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENT SYSTEM?

    0 1 2

    No arrangements exist to ensurethat top management reviews theenvironmental management systemto ensure continuing suitability,adequacy and effectiveness.

    Top management has plans andarrangements to review theenvironmental management system toensure continuing suitability, adequacyand effectiveness.

    Such reviews are not documented.There is no schedule for periodicallyreviewing the environmentalmanagement system.

    The management review process is notadequate to ensure that the necessaryinformation is collected to allow it tocarry out the evaluation.

    Managements review addresses theelements necessary for EnvironmentalManagement System implementationand the procedures associated with its

    implementation, but does not addresspossible needs to change the policy orits objectives and targets.

    Top management has reviewed theenvironmental management system toensure continuing suitability, adequacyand effectiveness.

    As part of the review process, the

    necessary information is identified andcollected to allow management to carryout this evaluation.

    Top management has determined theintervals at which it will review theenvironmental management system.

    The management review addresseschanging circumstances that mightnecessitate the possible needs forchanges to policy, objectives and otherelements of the environmentalmanagement system, in the light ofenvironmental management system

    audit results, changing circumstancesand the commitment to continualimprovement.

    Managements review is documented.

    The review of the policy, objectivesand procedures is carried out by thelevel of management that defined them(see Annex A to the Standard, A.6)

    Comments:

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    ISO 14001 Self Assessment Checklist: Annex I Further Information GEMI

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    ANNEX I: FURTHER INFORMATIONThe following information is offered as further guidance for the development, implementation and checking of anorganizations environmental management system. This information is derived primarily from the annex to ISO/DIS 14001and from ISO/DIS 14004 -Environmental management systems - General guidelines on principles, systems and supportingtechniques. Certain examples and hypothetical cases have been provided to illustrate the practical applications or implicationsof the principles elaborated in ISO/DIS 14004. These have been derived from various sources, including several commerciallyavailable information and training programs on EMS development and implementation, such as the EnvironmentalManagement Systems Training Program (Opleiding in Milieubeheersystemen) of the Federation of Belgian Enterprises andthe Environmental Management Systems Training Resource Kit sponsored by UNEP, the ICC and FIDIC, both of which arebased extensively on ISO/DIS 14001. Readers should bear in mind that the following information goes beyond a strictinterpretation of the ISO standard and is intended to provide supplemental information and ideas on how an organizationmight satisfy the standards requirements. It is not, and is not intended to be, an interpretation of the standard itself, and doesnot have the endorsement of ISO.

    PRINCIPLE 1: COMMITMENT AND POLICY

    The environmental policy acts as the driving force for implementing and improving the organizationsenvironmental management system so that it can maintain and potentially improve its environmental performance.Environmental policy is defined as a statement by the organization of its intentions and principles in relation toits overall environmental performance which provides a framework for action and for the setting of itsenvironmental objectives and targets. The environmental policy can have far-reaching business implications forthe future direction of the enterprise. It should be integrated into the organizations overall business strategy andshould also be compatible with other organizational policies such as quality, service, product stewardship oroccupational health and safety. Once an environmental policy has been developed and published, theorganizations environmental performance will be judged against it.

    To ensure success, an early step in developing or improving an environmental management system is obtainingcommitment from the top management of the organization to improve the environmental management of itsactivities, products or services. The ongoing commitment and leadership of the top management are crucial. The

    responsibility for developing the environmental policy should therefore rest with those at the very highest levelsof the organization (e.g. Board of Directors) and it should be signed by the Chairman, Chief Executive or similarsenior most manager as evidence of commitment. Top management may consist of an individual or group ofindividuals with executive responsibility for the organization.

    Other levels of management will then be responsible for implementing the policy, but continuing support from thetop of the organization will be needed during the further development of the environmental management systemand for the organizational changes which will result from its implementation. To allow this, senior managementshould appoint someone from management to oversee the development and to implement the environmentalpolicy. This person from management should also be provided the authority and means to do so.

    An environmental policy establishes an overall sense of direction and sets the principles of action for anorganization. It sets the overarching goal as to the level of overall environmental responsibility and performancerequired of the organization, against which all subsequent actions will be judged. It should reflect the

    organizations mission, vision, core values and guiding principles. It should also be based upon a full appreciationof the organizations environmental impacts and responsibilities.

    Formulating the policy

    The organizations management is responsible for providing input to the formulation and modification of thepolicy and for implementing the policy. Guiding principles such as the Rio Declaration on Environment andDevelopment or the Business Charter for Sustainable Development can assist the organization in developing its

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    policy. If the organization is part of any broader corporate body, top management should define and document itsenvironmental policy within the context of the environmental policy of that broader corporate body of which it is apart and with the endorsement of that body. Other important sources of information for input into theenvironmental policy development process include the following:

    The organizations values and beliefs, such as (desired) relationship with its employees, the local communityand the general public.

    The organizations business strategy and strategic plan: elements relating to the organizations (environmental)direction, opportunities and risks, medium and long term planning including internal and external limits andopportunities in capabilities and resources.

    Any existing statement on environmental aspects: mission statements, old policies, previous statements ofcommitment in internal/external reports.

    Other policies in existence such as occupational health and safety, or quality.

    The views of stakeholders (shareholders, employees) and other interested parties.

    Policy goals based on the initial environmental review.

    Legislation and regulations.

    Clear definition of the geographical and organizational scope of the policy: which facilities, departments,

    activities, services or products are to be covered by the environmental policy.

    General statements of environmental principles; e.g. from government, public bodies, industry associations,which are relevant to the organization.

    Examples of environmental policy statements from similar organizations.

    The issues addressed in the policy depend on the nature of the organization. All activities, products or services cancause impacts on the environment. The environmental policy should recognize this. The organizationsenvironmental policy cannot fully and adequately reflect the nature, scale and environmental impacts of itsoperations, products and/or services unless a conscious effort is made to assess these and their potential impacts onand/or implications for the environment. Therefore, some form of initial environmental review is an absolutenecessity if the resulting policy will truly reflect the organizations sense of environmental responsibility (SeeSection 4.3.1 Environmental Aspects).

    Taking into account the findings of such an initial review, the values and beliefs of the organization, itsrelationship with staff, neighbors, shareholders, customers and suppliers, regulators and other persons with aninterest in how well the organization manages its environmental affairs, the organization will prepare and publicizeits environmental policy, which will offer the broad environmental goals the organization intends to, or hopes toachieve.

    An environmental management system is a dynamic tool. The environmental policy should direct theenvironmental management system to achieve improvements in overall environmental performance. Theorganization should begin where there is obvious benefit, for example, by focusing on regulatory compliance, bylimiting sources of liability or by making more efficient use of materials.

    As the organization grows in experience, and its environmental management system starts to take shape,procedures, programs and technologies can be put in place to further improve environmental performance. Then asthe environmental management system matures, environmental considerations can be integrated into all businessdecisions.

    The environmental policy forms the basis upon which the organization sets its objectives and targets. It shouldprovide guidance. In ISO 14001, it is required that the environmental policy should explicitly include acommitment to comply with environmental legislation and regulations, and to other requirements to which theorganization subscribes. This is a clear guidance to all persons involved in the organization that its activitiesshould be carried out in compliance with environmental legislation and regulation. To have the greatest effect, itmight be useful to identify, in the policy, the other requirements to which the organization subscribes, such as the

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    CMA or CEFIC Responsible Care initiative, or the ICC Business Charter for Sustainable Development, forexample.

    For public authorities in many countries, this clear commitment to compliance with environmental legislation andregulations in the frame of a certified environmental management system is an indication that the organization is

    taking environmental issues seriously. This will allow the public authorities to focus their attention on thosecompanies who do not seem to take environmental issues seriously.

    The policy forms the basis upon which the organization sets its objectives and targets. These will, in turn, beachieved through the implementation of the environmental management program. The objectives and targetsshould, like the policy, take account of the nature, scale and characteristics of the activities, products and servicesof the organization. Useful inputs for determining these objectives and targets might include a consideration of thecurrent state and evolution of environmental legislation, private industry initiatives, the views of other interestedparties (including perhaps even environmentalists and community leaders), as well as financial and other businessconsiderations. Some organizations may start small, and initially go after objectives that bring immediate rewardsat low cost (i.e., low-hanging fruit). Eventually, targets and objectives might include longer-term business orcommercial opportunities.

    The policy should be sufficiently clear to be capable of being understood by internal and external interested parties

    and should be periodical ly reviewed and revised to reflect changing conditions and information. Its area ofapplication should be clearly identifiable.

    In addition to compliance with environmental regulations, the policy can state commitments to:

    minimize any significant adverse environmental impacts of new developments through the use of integratedenvironmental management procedures and planning;

    development of environmental performance evaluation procedures and associated indicators;

    embody life cycle thinking;

    design products in such a way as to minimize their environmental impacts in production, use and disposal;

    prevent pollution, reduce waste and the consumption of resources (materials, fuel and energy), and commit torecovery and recycling, as opposed to disposal where feasible;

    education and training;

    sharing environmental experience; involvement of and communication with interested parties;

    work towards sustainable development; and

    encourage responsible environmental behavior by suppliers and contractors.

    Publishing and distributing

    It is important to ensure that the environmental policy becomes widely known and understood throughout theorganization. The publishing and distribution of the environmental policy can provide an ideal opportunity formanagement to outline the underlying reasons for developing an environmental management system (for examplein terms of business security, opportunities and risk reduction) and to explain to the staff how it will beimplemented within the enterprise. This will help to encourage, at all levels, full commitment to achieving theenvironmental goals.

    Internal presentation of the policy should precede the formal external publication. This will give staff theopportunity to familiarize themselves with the policy and to have questions answered. The publication of thepolicy will inevitably lead to questions from the staff such as how will this affect my work. The opportunity tobegin an ongoing dialogue with staff concerning environmental aspects should not be missed. Input andsuggestions from staff towards meeting the policy objectives can provide the basis for motivating staff andencouraging their cooperation during the implementation stage of the environmental management system.

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    The publishing of the environmental policy is often the first public step into the environmental arena. Moreover,it can be an effective tool within the organization itself. It provides an ideal opportunity to explain to all of thestaff the environmental direction of the organization and the reasons why this is necessary, to motivate them andencourage their involvement and cooperation.

    As it is written for a wide audience, the style of the environmental policy should be concise. The informationshould be clearly formatted. It should be written in plain language that is accessible to and can be understood byall interested parties. The use of jargon, both environmental and technical, should be avoided.

    There are many ways to publicize the environmental policy, largely depending on the size and resources of theenterprise. A brochure to give to interested parties, including the environmental authorities, members of the localcommunity, etc. should be the minimum. Many companies also print their environmental policy in their annual(environmental) report, as well as post it prominently at the entrance to their facilities or offices. Of course, it isalso possible to pay for commercial advertising if this is seen of benefit to the organization.

    Review of the environmental policy

    In most organizations, the environmental policy is a relatively long-lived document, remaining unchanged for two

    or three years or even longer. However, it is necessary to ensure the continuing suitability of the policy on aregular basis. Changes might be necessary as a result of, for example:

    changing market situation;

    changes in processes, products, etc.;

    a merger with or acquisition of another organization; and/or

    the views of public and stakeholders.

    It is important to include the review of the policy in the overall management review of the environmentalmanagement system (See Section 4.5 Environmental management system review) and to revise and adjust it asnecessary.

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    PRINCIPLE 2: PLANNING

    Identification of environmental aspects and impacts

    An organizations policy, objectives and targets should be based on knowledge about the environmental aspectsand significant environmental impacts associated with its activities, products or services. This can ensure that thesignificant environmental impacts associated with these aspects are taken into account in setting the environmentalobjectives. The relation between environmental aspects and impacts is one of cause and effect. An environmentalaspect refers to an element of an organizations activity, which can have a beneficial or adverse effect on theenvironment. For example, it could involve a discharge, an emission, consumption or reuse of a material, ornoise. An impact refers to the change which takes place in the environment as a result of the aspect. Examples ofimpacts might include contamination of water or depletion of a natural resource.

    The identification of environmental aspects and the evaluation of environmental impacts is a process that can bedealt with in four steps:

    Step 1: Select an activity or process. (The selected activity or process should be large enough for meaningfulexamination and small enough to be sufficiently understood.)

    Step 2: Identify environmental aspects of the activity product or service. (Identify as many environmental aspectsas possible associated with the selected activity or process.)

    Step 3: Identify environmental impacts. (Identify as many actual and potential, positive and negative,environmental impacts as possible associated with each identified aspect.)

    Examples from the three steps are:

    Activity, product orservice

    EnvironmentalAspect

    EnvironmentalImpact

    handling of hazardousmaterials

    potential for accidentalspillage

    contamination of soil orwater

    product reformulation of the productto reduce its volume

    conservation of naturalresources

    vehicle maintenance exhaust emissions reduction of air pollution

    Step 4: Evaluate significance of impact. (The significance of each of the identified environmental impacts can bedifferent for each organization. Quantification can aid judgment. Evaluation can be facilitated byconsidering environmental concerns (the scale of the impact, the severity of the impact, probability ofoccurrence, duration of impact) and business concerns (potential regulatory and legal exposure, difficulty ofmitigating the impact, costs of mitigating the impact, effect of change on other activities and processes,concerns of interested parties, effects on public image of the organization).)

    This section is intended to provide a process for an organization to identify significant environmental aspects thatshould be addressed as a priority by the organizations environmental management system. This process shouldtake into account the cost and time of undertaking the analysis and the availability of reliable data. Informationalready developed for regulatory or other purposes may be used in this process. Organizations may also take intoaccount the degree of practical control they may have over the environmental aspects being considered.Organizations determine what their environmental aspects are taking into account the inputs and outputs associatedwith their current and relevant past activities, products and services.

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    The identification of the environmental aspects is an ongo