HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in...

of 64 /64
& &R RQ QV VH HU UY YL LQ QJ J% %L LR R L LY YH HU UV VL LW W\ \ $ $H HF FD DG GH HV V( ([ [S SH HU UL LH HQ QF FH H R RI IK KD DQ QL L3 3D DQ QF FK K0 0R RX XM MD D 3 3H HR RS SO OH H 9 9$ $6 68 81 1+ +$ $5 5$ $ % %+ +8 8% %$ $1 1( (6 6: :$ $5 5 2 25 5, ,66 66$ $

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in...

Page 1: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management






Page 2: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Biodiversity Conservation Prioritisation Project

Site Report for the five villages of the Dhani Community Forest Management


Arjunpur, Balarampur, Barapalli, Kiyapalla, Panaspur

Nayagarh Orissa

Edited by Rekha Panigrahi

Y Giri Rao

Late Sri Sukesh Chandra Ukil Y Giri Rao

Rekha Panigrahi

Page 3: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Ashok Nayak ����&&221177((117766��

� �������������� �������������������������������

�������������� "!$#!$# � ��%%&## ')(�*')(�*

++-,,�..�//100�22433�5.&+56.&+ 00�,,



POQOR�SUT)SPOQOR�SUT)S1VV�PP�WWFQQ)XXZYY�[[ \ \$RR�YY�[[ ] ] V V^V)_`WV)_ZW"aa�bcb&Rbcb&R�SS�dd

e e�fhgjifkgjiJll�mm4n�o�in�o�i

pp�ff lrq"sUtlrqus)tvff m m4n�ewo�i�t�lOo�iFmn�e�o�i�tOlOo�irm6qq�ff x x i i

yn�zyn�z{nn$||�i�y�i�z�qNs)oJqi�y�i�z�qNs)oJq:ff s)zs)z

}4i}4i x x i�ei�ecss�o�y�i�z�q�n$lOoo�y�i�z�q�n$lOo�ffktt n n�qq�ff s)zs)z�ll

f f ljlO~viFl��ljlO~viFl���lO~O|�|)ilO~1|�|)iFlljqq�ii�} l} l ss)ee�~~�qq�f sf s�z�lz�l

m�s)z�lOi�tm�s)z�lOi�t xx n n�qq&ff s)zsUz�lljqq�trntrn�qq�iir|| � �



Page 4: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Acknowledgments The research team would like to thank Prof. Madhav Gadgil and his team for their support during the study. We would like to specially thank Pramod, Utkarsh and Smita for their inputs to the process. The research has benefited from the theoretical and logistical inputs from Vishesh and Sudipto of the IIPA and the WWF respectively. The local staff of the forest department made significant contributions to the undertaking of the research. Special thanks are due to village men and women in the five villages involved in protection of Dhani forests i.e. Barapalli, Arjunpur, Balarampur, Kiyapalla and Panaspur. The Team would like to thank Knowledgeable Individuals, Committee members, harijan women of Arjunpur village, Tribal women of Panaspur & Kiyapalla villages, Forest watcher and all others who helped us a lot to carry out the study in the villages. Particularly useful were the help and guidance of the local medicineman Sri Banambar Das, pioneer of the forest protection initiative Sri Kanduri Pradhan and the FPC President Sri Biranchi Das. Special thanks are due to the Harijan women, notably Smt. Magi Dei and Smt. Rangalata, who provided us with a close understanding of the role of women in sustainable utilisation of the forests.

Page 5: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

ABBREVIATIONS CFM - Community Forest Management FD - Forest department Govt. - Government JFM - Joint Forest Management LSE - Landscape Element MFP - Minor Forest Produce NTFP - Non-Timber Forest Produce NFEC - Non-Formal Education Centre NGO - Non-Government Organisation OFDC - Orissa Forest Development Corporation Pvt. - Private RF` - Reserve Forest SFP - Social Forestry Project VFPC - Village Forest Protection Committee VSS - Van Samrakshan Samiti

Page 6: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

� �k� �������1�����4��O�6�&��6�&� �����

Background and Objectives The Bio-diversity Conservation Prioritization Project (BCPP) was undertaken by WWF-India in association with other NGOs and Government at various levels for India with the support and collaboration of Bio-diversity Support Program. This Bio-diversity Conservation Prioritization exercise is different from such efforts in the past by attempting to be participatory and attempting to incorporate community perspective in the Project. While different subgroups under the BCPP worked on what and where, the strategies subgroup addressed the issue of how. The Conservation Strategies Sub-Group attempted to document local level community conservation priorities and strategies to address these local level conservation priorities. This sub-group documented these priorities and initiated discussion on strategies at different sites in seven states in India i.e. Bihar, Orissa, Andamans, Assam, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Himachal Pradesh. This sub-group aimed at documenting the perceptions of various sections and interest groups on bio-diversity conservation, with a view to discuss a range of viable strategic options for bio-diversity conservation at different levels with these different sections of society, in Orissa. Vasundhara as being a part of the strategies sub-group worked towards developing an understanding of how to conserve by exploring the concept of Bio-diversity Conservation at some sites in Orissa. PRAVA, a group based at Balasore which took the primary responsibility of taking up this exercise at Simlipal site. The project had two main components: I. Documenting knowledge and perception of local communities and different sections

within the local community about bio-diversity and conservation at the village/ Panchayat level using community Bio-diversity Register (CBR) as a methodology.

II. Facilitating discussions on the differing perceptions of various sections and interest groups at different levels-village level/Panchayat /cluster to district, state level with a view to record different perceptions as well as facilitating discussion on strategies for bio-diversity conservation reconciling different interest groups priorities and perceptions.

Community Forest Management in Orissa In Orissa, many communities have taken up active protection and management of forests on their own initiative. These community initiatives were prompted by forest degradation and forest produce scarcity. Community concern generated due to forest degradation was translated into active forest protection efforts. There are cases of community forest protection arrangement initiated as far back as 1940s. Over time, faced with increasing forest scarcity, more and more rural communities have taken up

Page 7: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

forest protection in the State. These efforts became widespread in mid 1970s and 1980s. According to one estimate at least 4000 villages in Orissa (total number of villages in Orissa 60,000) are protecting over 2,50,000 hectares of forest (approx. 5% of the total forest area of Orissa) (Singhs, 1993). In NAYAGARH district (Ranpur block) in Orissa, around 120 villages have spontaneously taken up active protection of forests. These community based forest management systems display remarkable ingenuity. Each group of villages present its own management system. The villagers have organised themselves into informal and formal organisations. These community organisations over the time have matured to manage the forest resources sustainably. Site Overview Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management system. It is unique in context of its strong community institutional structure and a case where a cluster of five villages have been unitedly protecting and managing the forest since a decade. Protection by the villagers was initiated at the time when the forest was completely degraded. It’s because of their untiring efforts & initiatives that Dhani has regenerated a good forest cover. The forest protection institution evolved effective protection and extraction regulation arrangements promoting forest regeneration. The management system developed by the community offers equal benefits sharing and decision making between all castes, general, harijan and the tribals. Parts of Dhani R.F. is being protected by “Dhani South Panch Mouja Jungle Suraksha Samiti” comprising of five villages viz. Barapalli, Arjunpur, Balarampur, Kiyapalla and Panaspur. The five villages are involved in the protection of approximately 839.75 hectares of compartment 5 & 6 of Dhani R.F. Dhani R.F. has dry type mixed forest. Dhani also has some almost pure patches of bamboo. Eventhough the Working plan classifies this forest as scrub forest in degraded condition, very good regeneration has come up due to active protection by villagers. The protection initiative has been recognised and lauded internationally. There has been a steady flow of researchers from other parts of the country and also from abroad. People from the forest department of Orissa and also from other states have been sent to learn from the Dhani experience. The Orissa Forest Department has also appreciated the efforts. The protection initiative that started in 1987 is now in the process of being formalized in to a Joint Forest Management System. For its pioneering efforts towards community based forest management the villages have been conferred with the Prakruti Mitra Award, the highest award in the state in the field of environmental protection. The Dhani Success Story has been picturised in to a documentary film by the state Government to be used as a model for participatory forest management. The major Newspapers of the state have also highlighted the Dhani success story. Dhani has featured as the example of successful forest conservation in various national and international workshops. The Dhani Case study has appeared in various publications in India and abroad, the most noteworthy being the report of IUCN, the World Conservation Union.

Page 8: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


This study is mainly based on developing an understanding of peoples’ association with natural ecosystems and their comprehension about its management. In Orissa, five sites have been selected from different ecological regimes. In this particular site the study has been carried out in a cluster of five forest protecting villages. Team Composition As a nodal agency for Orissa, Vasundhara facilitated cooperation between various NGOs (including local NGOs and village level organisations and the forest department and its wild life wing) for this project. The research team comprises of professionals, school teachers and village youths. Method of study This site is in Vasundhara’s operational area where efforts are being made for strengthening community initiatives and community organizations involved in forest protection. Efforts are being made to facilitate interaction and exchange amongst forest protecting villages, and these efforts have led to formation of a block level federation of forest protecting villages. As Vasundhara have been trying to strengthen community initiatives in the area so a good rapport has been built with the villagers. A group meeting was first called with the forest protecting committee members and objectives and purpose of the study were made clear. The study has been carried out on the guidelines provided by the Shrustigyan manual with slight modifications. The methods involved: a) Intensive field visits in the five villages. Field study with different user groups and

knowledgeable individuals helped to understand different aspects related to bio-diversity.

b) Identification of User group on the basis of livelihood activities attached with the

resource. c) Information collection through

+ Primary source

• Individual interviews of User group members, Committee members, Knowledgeable individuals and government officials.

• Household interviews of direct & indirect user groups. • Small group discussions with user groups and others.

Page 9: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

• Large group meetings with user groups, village leaders and knowledgeable individuals.

+ Secondary source Reports, Puri district (Orissa) gazetteer was referred. d) PRA Excersise Social map of individual villages, Forest map and LSE map were prepared by the villagers showing the presence of different resources in the locality. Different field exercises were conducted to gather informations like timeline on history of forest protection, ranking of species, prioritisation exercises (of various LSEs, species) etc. The team made a few visits to the forest area for field identification of the species used by the user groups and other species found in the forest. e) Compilation and Analysis of data The researchers maintained field notes to record the informations. After the field visits informations were compiled for further analysis. f) Validating the data Repeated meetings and interviews were conducted with different individuals and user groups to validate the collected data. g) Presentation of the Findings The collected informations were displayed before the people in a combined meeting of all the villages. Tools used: + Interviews Individual interview Household interview + Field visits + Mapping + PRA exercises + Group discussions + Combined group discussions Knowledgeable Individuals And Their Expertise During the study we had been able to identify a number of persons who have deep knowledge about the forest. The villagers have taken the initiative for enumeration of tree species present in their forest. The watchman appointed by the Forest Protection Committee has prepared a list of 260 plant species present in their forest. The herbal man of Barapalli village helped in documenting the medicinal species and their use for curing varied animal diseases. The ex-president of Forest Protection Committee who facilitated and took a leading role in the protection activity shared his experience on the community’s initiatives and the history of protection efforts. In our discussions with

Page 10: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

tribal and harijan women they showed a wide knowledge and interest on forest. They informed about various forest produces available and the distribution of plant species in different areas in the forest. Many experts in agriculture acknowledged us with information on various agricultural activities. Some villagers helped in mapping and locating various landscape elements present in the villages.

Knowledgeable Individuals Age Expertise Kanduri Pradhan 60 Ex-President of FPC Magi Dei 45 President Mahila Samiti Mahendra 30 Forest Watchman Banambar Das 70 Herbalman Avina Pradhan 65 Farmer Brahmachari Das 58 Health Inspector Biranchi Das 45 President of FPC Duryodhan Das 35 Farmer Rangalata Dei 40 Member of VSS

Page 11: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Arjunpur Barapalli Balarampur Kiyapalla Panasadih Panchayat Kerandatangi Block Raj Ranpur Tahasil Raj Ranpur District Nayagarh Post office Patia (Mal) Police station Raj Ranpur Forest Division


Range office Tangi No. of H.H. 73 62 35 30 14 Castewise Household General 52 43 04 -- -- S.C.

21 19 11 -- --

S.T. -- -- 20 30 14 Population 412 408 205 163 56 Castewise Population General 322 325 21 -- -- S.C. 90 83 68 -- -- S.T. -- -- 116 163 56 Occupation 1AG,WL,




Institutions School(upto class VII), Temple

Youth club, Dairy unit, Temple


Mahila samiti, Non-formal education centre


Village resources

Pond, Wells, Stream, Tubewells, Gramya Jungle,Grazing land, Social Forestry Plantation

Health Primary health centre at Tangi

1 AG - Agriculturists, WL - Wage labor, SLC - Siali leaf collectors, DF - Dairy farmers, SH - Service holders, FPC - Forest produce collectors(fuelwood, bamboo, climbers, kendu leaves), BU - Buisness(village shop), TC - Tuber collectors,

Page 12: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

������r  ���¡H�F¢L£��¡"�F¢L£N¤¤N�����

Location Dhani is located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district in the south of the Orissa province. It is situated in 85º19’30’’ and 19 º56’ N at a distance of 73 k ms from the capital city Bhubaneswar. Ranpur was one of the princely states that merged in Orissa, after independence on 1st January 1948 and formed a part of the district of Puri. Recently after reconstitution of districts following an increase in number of districts, it has been included in Nayagarh district. Climate The climate is tropical. It is neither too hot in summer nor too cold in winter. Especially in summer evenings the people living in the area get the advantage of Chilika lake breeze, the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia (only at a distance of 3 miles). The people The population consists of Brahmin, Khandyat, Harijan and Tribal. The tribe includes Saora and Kandha people. Brahmin and Khandayat castes are the influential people.

Of the five villages, Kiyapalla and Panaspur are purely tribal settlements. While the Kiyapalla village have Saora people, Panaspur have Kandh tribe. The village Balarampur has a significant tribal and Schedule caste (harijan) population, while in Barapalli and Arjunpur the dominant caste is Khandayat(Farming community). Caste plays an important role in the Socio - economic life of the people. The Khandayats who form a substantial section of the population belong to the warrior class. They are descendants of the people who formed the landed militia under the ancient Rajas of Orissa. As members of the militia, the Khandayats had to serve as soldiers in times of war, and in return they were given lands. Their traditional occupation having gone, they have now taken to various professions. Many of them depend upon agriculture as a means of livelihood. Harijans mostly work as cultivators and wage laborers. They worship Hindu gods. They have their community priests who perform marriage and other ceremonies.

Page 13: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

The mother tongue of the Kandhs is Kui, but all Kandhas know and speak Oriya. They mostly depend upon forest products and wage labor for their livelihood. Kandhas have got hinduised and follow Hindu customs. Saora tribe is otherwise known as ‘sabar’ or ‘saura’. They are divided into a number of endogamous groups. The saoras follow Hinduism and observe a number of Hindu ceremonies. Land Holding In Balarampur, Barapalli and Arjunpur villages most of the households have some agricultural land (varying between 1 to 10 hectares), a majority being small and marginal farmers. In the other two villages Kiyapalla and Panaspur, which are tribal villages, a majority are landless and some have encroached upon some land near the forest. The tribal and SC people have no land (except for few households), whereas, the general caste people have some agricultural land. Many landless have entered into share cropping arrangement with the landed general caste people. The forest dependents include mostly tribal, who depend on the collection of fuelwood, bamboo and lai (creepers used for tying purposes in house construction and fishing activity) for sale. The men from this community migrate outside the State for 6-7 months per year and work as casual labour. Village Amenities The villages are situated close to each other to the south of Dhani Reserve Forest. The nearest semi- urban place is Tangi that is located at a distance of eight kilometers. The road crossing through the villages is gravel road and distance to the nearest coal tar road is three kilometers. No bus service is available to the villages. People generally use cycles to travel to near by areas. People fetch drinking water from well and tubewell. For taking bathe they use pond, stream and well water. There is a common school for the five villages in Arjunpur. The school has classes up to seventh standard. The middle standard school building was reconstructed by the forest protection committee. For higher class students go to Patia high school (2 Kilometers) / Barapari high school (3 kilometers). The nearest college is in Tangi (8 kilometers from Dhani). There is no local health center in the villages . People go to the medical dispensary at Tangi for treatment. For minor ailments' people approach alleopathy practitioner of Barapalli and Arjunpur village. One individual of Barapalli practices herbal medicine for cattle and occasionally for man. The herbal practitioner provides services free of cost. There is a Youth club and dairy unit in Barapalli. Fourteen families from Arjunpur and Barapalli villages have registered themselves as the members of the dairy unit. The tribal women of Kiyapalla have formed a Mahila samiti with the help of a local NGO. Presently the samiti is involved in saving and credit activities.

Page 14: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

All the five villages are in close proximity of Dhani forest and most of them are forest dependent. The five villages Barapalli, Arjunpur, Panaspur, Balarampur and Kiyapalla have traditional socio-cultural ties. Any case pertaining to village life is decided collectively. These five villages also have festivals like “Pani Jantala” (village festival observed once in three years to satiate the rain God for good rains) is observed unitedly in the forest by the Panch mouza. These five villages had a primary committee to coordinate these collective activities prior to taking up collective forest protection. Cultural And Other Aspects Structure of House The village have hamlets (sahi) representing different castes of people staying in different groups. The general caste people stay together known as Khandayat sahi and the harijan hamlet is known as Harijan sahi. Arjunpur, Barapalli and Balarampur villages have heterogeneous distribution of Khandayat, Harijan and Tribal castes while Kiyapalla and Panaspur villages have homogenous distribution of only tribal families. Houses of people are built with mud walls or stone walls (laterite stone) with slanting thatched roofs. They are constructed close to each other in rows. Every house has a small space at the back where the female members do kitchen garden and sit together during their leisure time. The front space is generally used as cattle shed. Each room is known as ‘bakhara’ in local language. The rooms are very small and lack proper ventilation. Separate room is used to store paddy (or Amhara ghar) in the house. The walls of dwelling houses are smeared with cowdung and with red earth. On marriage ceremonies and on special occasions the houses are decorated with colors. On all Thursdays, specially during the month of Margasira(November), alpana designs(rangoli) are made on the floor and door steps to welcome the goddess of wealth. Food Habits Rice is the staple food of the people. During summer days the common food is cold rice (pakhal ). In breakfast people take flattened rice (chuda), puffed rice (muri), pop rice (khai) etc. The village people prepare various kinds of rice cakes (pitha) on festive occasions. Drinking of tea has become very popular among all classes of people. Traditionally, pan (betel) is offered as a mark of courtesy when a guest comes to the house. Home brewed rice beer called handia and toddy is generally used by the tribal and harijans. Smoking of tobacco is very common among the males. Bidis and Cigarette are also widely consumed. Dress The climate is hot for most part of the year and hence light cotton clothes are used by people. Generally men wear dhoti; some of them also use lungi & gamuchha (towel). Young men prefer to wear trouser and shirts. Women irrespective of caste and social condition wear sari. Married women veil their head as a custom. Women use various kinds of ornaments for decorating their body. These ornaments are made of gold, silver, copper, brass, glass beads, plastic etc. People belonging to low income group prefer to

Page 15: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

wear copper, brass, bell metal, plastic ornaments and glass beads. The rich and higher income class people use silver and gold ornaments. Deities and Festivals Each village has its own village deity known as Gram devati who presides over the welfare of the community. The Gram devati is represented by a piece of stone smeared with vermilion placed under a big tree. Carved images are also worshipped. Gram devati is worshipped on the occasion of every religious ceremony and also on special occasions like the outbreak of epidemics, marriage, etc. A number of festivals are observed all the year round. Some of the important festivals celebrated are Durga puja and Dussehera. The Durga puja and Dusshera festivals are celebrated during the fortnight in the month of Aswin (September-October). Clay image of goddess Durga is worshipped on the occasion. The tenth day of the festival is called Dusshera. In Dolayatra festival, image of Shri Krishna is placed in a decorated biman (palanquin) and is carried in procession. Janmastami (this festival is celebrated in honor of Lord Krishna’s birth), Jhulan Yatra, Diwali, Kumar Purnima, Magh Saptami, Raja (an important agricultural festival observed for three days), Makara Sankranti, Ram Navami, Mana Usa( celebrated after harvest of new paddy), Shivratri, and many others are celebrated with great joy in the villages. During flowering season of mango, the villagers worship mango trees which is considered as a religious tree. The villages have community festival like “Pani Jantala” (village festival observed once in three years to satiate the rain god for good rains) which is observed unitedly in the forest by the Panch Mouja.

Page 16: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

¥�¦O§�¨U©)¨¥O¦O§�¨U©)¨Oªª�¥¥�««r¦¦)¬¬`­­�®® ¯ ¯$§§�­­�®® ° ° ª ª^ª)±`«ª)±`«H²²�³@³&§³c³&§�¨¨�´´�¦¦

User Groups \ Livelihood Activities Depending upon the livelihood activities attached with the resource, following user groups were identified: 1. Fuelwood gatherers 3. Siali leaf collectors 5. Agriculturists

2. Dairy farmers 4. Tuber collectors

Livelihood Activities The main occupation of the people is agriculture. Being a tropical area paddy is the predominant crop and extensively grown. People grow traditional variety of paddy namely Biali dhan sown in the month of June and harvested towards the end of October-November. Some of the other local paddy varieties grown are Sonakhila, Padmakesari, Kalagiri, Krushnabhog etc. The villagers lack opportunity of growing second crops because of inadequate irrigation facilities. In last some years few have started cultivating high yield short duration paddy/ dalua dhan (known locally) in summer season. These paddy varieties are cultivated in low-lying fields close to the forest. The high yield paddy varieties are Ratna, Jaya, IR-36, Annapurna, etc. Other principal crops grown are maize, green gram, black gram and vegetables like brinjal, pumpkin, lady’s finger etc. Farmers in possession of large lands (Khandayat community) depend solely on agricultural activities. Those who have small lands, the tribals and harijans mostly go for share cropping with the landed farmers. During crop season they do labor in agricultural fields. In rest of the year they find some work as casual labor in the nearby urban centers. Young men from the community migrate outside the state to cities like Calcutta, Bombay, and Gujarat for 6-7 months and work there as casual labor. Tribal women too play a major role in livelihood activities. Throughout the year they perform forest activities to earn a living. Forest Activities Fuelwood gathering forms an important economic activity for the tribal families of Kiyapalla village. Women collect fuelwood from the forest for sale. They spend 8-9 hours a day in collection and sell the produce either in the neighboring villages or in the

Page 17: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

market of Tangi/Chandpur (8kms from the village). The adult women mostly perform the activity. Seldom the male members go for fuelwood collection for household. Women group prioritised some fuelwood species on the basis of following parameters that fetch the collectors a good price: • Tree branches that have smooth surface & so easy to make bundles. • Wood that catches fire easily. • Fire remains for a longer time. Prioritised Fuelwood species Local Name Scientific Name Atundi Combretum

decandrum Bamboo Bambusa arundinacae Chaluniya Dhaman Greura tiliaefolia Giringa Pterospermum

xylocarpum Kalucha Diaspynes sylvatica Phatabarang

During the months April-July women collect Kendu leaves from the forest. The leaves are sold to the local traders who come and take from their village. The collections do not turn out in large quantity because of limited trees in the forest. Harijan families are dependent on Siali leaves for a living. Approximately 51 families are involved in collection and selling of Siali leaves. The collection

varies with seasonal variation, the period of highest collection is after rainy season when new leaves come out. In these period one can collect maximum to 3000 leaves. The collection reduces during summer and winter season. Women perform the entire activity of collection and marketing. They sell leaves collectively once in a week in the market of Tangi/Chandpur. Sometimes local traders from Barapalli and other neighboring villages purchase leaves from their village. These communities also collect tubers like Tunga, Karba, Pichuli, Kanta alu, and Pita alu and sell them. They even collect date palm (khajuri) leaves and prepare rush mats for self-use. Sometimes people of neighboring village buy the mats from them. However this is not a regular activity of the people.

Page 18: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

µ µ ¶ ·¹¸¶ ·¹¸»ºº¹¼¼�½½1¾"¸¾u¸

Landscape elements One of the major LSEs identified by the villagers is Dhani RF. The total area of forests comprises of 839.75 hectares. Dhani forest is of mixed dry deciduous type. The forest is located in hilly terrain; the peak of the hill is called Dhani mundiya. The forest area includes a few hillocks, which have been given different names by the village people. Within a single ecological habitat patch like Dhani forest, local people affix different names for the areas. Most of the vernacular names are given after the plant species dominating that particular area. Major naturally occurring species are species of Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea), Terminalia species (Arjun, Asan etc), Bridellia retusa (Kasi), Lagerstroemia parviflora, Saraca indica, Mitragyna parviflora, Aegle species (Bael) and Pterocarpus marsupium (Piyasal). Different areas & their vernacular names

Dominant Plant Species

Angarkhol Bamboo, Siali, Kasi Baghmari Bamboo, Kasi, Phasi, Mahul Bainchakhol Bamboo, Lembur, Kasi Gadakhol Rai, Sisoo, Kasi, Lembur, Kumbhi, Siali, Bamboo Kochada Saguan, Acacia, Eucalyptus, Bamboo Lemburkhol Lembur Ostakhol Dhaman, Bamboo, Kasi, Mundika, Ficus spps Panichana Kurum, Kasi, Dhaman, Labeniswar Simulidamak Bamboo, Sisoo, Dhaman

The seasonal streamlet originating in Dhani hill flows through the villages that serve as a source of water for irrigation purpose. Besides the natural forest other forest resources found are mixed plantation of Acacia, Eucalyptus, Arjun, Chakundi planted by OFDC. The FD has carried out separate plantations of Kaju, Saguan and Phasi in the forest. There are three checkdams within the forest area, which helps the people to irrigate their low lying crop fields. Various landscape elements were identified in different villages. Habitation and resource maps of all the five villages were prepared to document the landscape elements - wells, ponds, paddy fields, homestead land, gramya jungle, road, thickets, acacia, eucalyptus & cashewnut plantations, orchard, grazing lands etc.

Page 19: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

People have listed around 250 plant species, 28 animal species, 40 birds, 19 reptiles and a number of insects inhabiting the forest (a list of these wild species is given in the annexure). This shows people’s wide knowledge about the bio -diversity. Ownership, Use and Composition Dhani forest has the status of Reserve Forest. The forest abounds a number of herbs, shrubs, big trees with wild animals such as mammals, birds, reptiles, insects. The forest is protected and managed collectively by the local communities. The villagers collect fuelwood for self use from the forest. Besides, wood for house building, bamboo, creepers, berries, fruits, tubers are also derived from the forest. Tribal and harijan families depend largely on forest produces to earn a living. Fuel wood gathering and Siali leaves collection is major economic activities undertaken by the tribal and harijan women respectively. These villages also have some Gramya Jungle falling within their respective village boundary. These are part of protected forest. Though normally they are supposed to be under village control, there is considerable confusion on the access & control over these forests. Protected forests are under the authority of Revenue department and managed collectively with Forest department. However, no management plans and schemes are prepared for managing these forests. The village people meet their fuel wood requirements, wood for cremation purpose from these patches but extraction of forest products for economic purpose is strictly restricted Cattles of the village graze in revenue plots/ Gochar, Dhani R.F, Gramya jungle. Kalucha, Neem, Kochila, Kendu, Geringa, Achu, are some of the tree species commonly found in gochar lands. Balarampur village has a common orchard of mango and jackfruit species. The villagers collectively manage the orchard and derive fruits, leaves for fuelwood. Agricultural fields cover a major land area. General caste people are in possession of large land holdings where as a very few tribal and harijan families have lands and that too very small holding. People chiefly cultivate traditional variety of paddy. In large only one crop is grown during monsoons throughout the year. Only a few farmers cultivate vegetables and high yield paddy variety in summer. Arjunpur, Barapalli and Kiyapalla have village ponds combinedly managed by the villagers. The ponds are usually used for bathing purpose and significantly for fish farming. Pond water is also used to irrigate the vegetable fields. Values: The forest has regenerated a good vegetation cover as a result of years of peoples’ toiling efforts and hardship. All the village people meet their fuelwood demand and other forest produce needs from Dhani forest. The forest also contributes to day to day livelihood of low class. Thus for the people of Dhani villages the forest is more than trees and is valued for the array of products & services which it provides.

Village Gramya Jungle (Local name) Arjunpur Pokhari mundiya Barapalli Bilei mundiya Kiyapalla Bari mundia

Page 20: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Trees like Peepal, Banyan, Mango, Sahada, Neem, Bael, Ashoka etc., are attached with religious value and so cutting of these trees is prohibited. During festive occasions people worship these trees. While some other species such as Harida, Bahada, Aonla ,Neem, Patalagaruda, Sahajamari, Khirakanchini, Bhuinkakahru, Krushna and animals like Gayala(Wild buffalo), Kochila-khai(Common grey hornbill), Baduri(Bat) were prioritised for having medicinal value. ¿ ¿ÁÀÀ ÂrÃuÄ)ÅÂrÃuÄ)Å�ÀÀ Æ Æ4Ç�È�É�Ê�ÅOÂOÉ�ÊFÆÇ�ÈwÉ�Ê�Å�ÂOÉ�ÊFÆ6ÃÃ�À ËÀ Ë$ÊÊ

Historical Bench marks i. Pre- Independence period ( King’s tenure) ii. Post - Independence period iii. Period after Forest protection i. Pre-Independence period ( king’s tenure) a) Forest Administration: Before Independence, the area was ruled under the princely state of Ranpur king. The king acted as the local chiefs under the British rule. For administrative purpose the forest areas were divided into, reserve forest and Village forest. The Reserve forest areas were divided into ‘A’ and ‘B’ classes type. People had no right on ‘A class Reserve Forest’ of any kind. This forest was kept for revenue earning. However, poor low caste forest dependent groups collected only fruits, roots and fibres from the Reserve Forest for their own use free of payment. Where as ‘B class Reserve Forest’ was used to meet the needs of the tenants. From this patch people got timber at half the schedule of rates. The king had a separate administration to manage the Reserve Forest. Rangers, foresters and forest guards were appointed to look after the forest. The Village Forest was under the Revenue Department but in case of any forest offences the Forest Department took it up. b) Species Distribution: Sal (Shorea robusta) constituted the principal species in the forest. The trees generally found in association with Sal were Asan, Bahada, Harida, Mahul, Jamun, Kendu, Piasal, Kasi, Sidha, Sisoo Kumbhi, Kusum, Kurum and Sunari. The common shrubs found were Flemingia chappar, Indigofera pulchella, Wendlandia tinctoria, Woodfordia fruiticosa, Diospyros sylvaticae; the climber species included Milletia auriculata, Siali (Bauhinia vahilii), Butea parviflora, Combretum decandrum etc. The minor produce of local importance was Harida, Bahada, Aonla, Kamalagundi, Sunari-bark, Kochila and Kendu leaves. The forest was abundant with number of wild animals such as tiger, wild buffalo(bubalus bubalis), Kutra, Wild boar, Otter, Fox, Wild cat, Wolf, Rabbit, Jackal, Beer, Male cat, Antelope, Porcupine, Deer etc. c) Existing Rights: Permission for extraction of all sorts of forest produce except game was existent. The tenants were allowed to collect bamboo and timber for plough implements and house repairs on permits on payment of half royalty from the protected forests and on full

Page 21: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

royalty from the B class reserve forest. At times the King allowed the people to collect their requirements free of any payment in lieu of ‘Bhet and Begari’ 2 rendered by them. Every year the king issued permit for a period of one month for collection of forest products. Kandha and Sabar people (tribes found in this area) enjoyed special concessions in having access and rights on the forest, which included: ⇒ The rights to collect free and without permit dry fallen branches of any species for

fuel. ⇒ Right to collect free and without permission edible fruits, roots, leaves, creepers and

grass for their own use only. Other castes too received the rights to collect these produces but only after getting permit.

⇒ The right to take wood and bamboo for agricultural implements and house construction on permits which was issued free of cost.

⇒ The right to graze cattle and buffaloes up to a maximum of 8 animals per tenant free and without permission. Calves were free to graze.

However this practice has been suspended since the abolition of Bhet and Begari. d) Conservation Efforts The King’s regime had stringent rules and regulations that prevented the people from exploiting the resource. In case of violating the rules the forest offenders were strictly punished. People cited certain cases when the offenders were put behind bars for collecting unripe fruits. Hunting of wild animals was strictly restricted for the Praja (common people). Only the royal family held the privilege of hunting. The tribals usually accompanied the King for hunting expedition during which these people were able to derive animal meat. Some trees in the protected forests were declared as reserved trees (as mentioned in Ranpur Forest rules).

2 Begari is a oriya term which means free labour rendered by the people as a service to the King. Bhet signifies gift given to the King ( people used to give the first produce grown in their land-paddy, vegetable or any new produce to the King).

Recorded Protected Trees Sal Tinia Bheroo Sidha Mango Kurum Bahada Gambhari Harida Bandhan Jamun Ghodalnja Piasal Arjun Kangra Jackfruit Sisoo Palas Kainya Khair Kochila Harida Kasi

People were not allowed to cut the reserved trees without permission. However, after

getting permission one can collect reserved trees only for own consumption and not for sale. People were free to collect fruits and flowers of the declared reserved trees without

Page 22: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

permission except Mango, Jackfruit, Tamarind, Kamlagundi, Kochila, Harida, Bahada and Aonla. The tenants were also allowed to take the un-prohibited trees from the village forests for their own use without permission. There existed strict restriction on selling or exporting trees without a permit. The process of alienation of forest communities from the forests began during the British period. The declaration of Reserve Forest overlooked the customary local rights of the people. The industrial and commercial interests were instrumental causative factors for such alienation. After independence, the same interests were considered as national interests and continued to be pursued.

ii. Post -Independence period After Independence, the princely state of Ranpur merged in Orissa and formed a part of the district of Puri. Forests came under the jurisdiction of Forest department. History of forest degradation & its impact: Even after independence revenue objectives of Government continued. Forests continued to be regarded as national resource and so were reserved for national needs. On the other hand with the increasing population there was an expansion in habitation and agricultural lands. Meanwhile rapid industralisation and urbanisation in the nearby areas (Cuttack, Khurda, Bhubaneswar) continued which led to a massive demand of timber. Further the village people practiced podu cultivation in the lower portion of hill. All these led to rampant cutting of big trees. In the year 1961-62 the forest was given coupe to Private contractors to harvest timber. This resulted in destruction of a vast forest cover in the low-lying areas. The local people converted the cleared areas into agricultural lands. People cultivated mandiya (millet), maize, vegetables etc and received good produce from the fertile lands. Later on, FD took up teak plantation in a part of the harvested area (teak species was for the first time introduced in the area). For the second time the forest was again given coupe to OFDC (in the year 1979-80). This time there was clear felling, the forest being completely devoid of large trees. Local people received no share in the harvested produce. This made them feel that since the forest in any case would get cut and they may not be able to receive any benefit, so they thought to cut the remaining trees and have the wood. This resulted in complete degradation of the forest cover. Because of forest degradation the local people experienced many difficulties. The cleared forest patch was no more able to meet the fuelwood demand. People largely felt the scarcity of fuelwood, house-building materials, wood for agricultural implements, etc. They faced a lot of difficulties in getting wood for cremation purpose. Farmers faced frequent crop failures. The loss of forest cover resulted to decline in soil fertility thus yielding poor produce. When there were forest people received good produce from their fields as the stream and rainwater flowing through the forest carried green manure (dry, fallen, decayed leaves) into the agricultural fields. But with the forest degradation the lands no more received green manure. Forest dependents were the worst sufferers. These people not able to get their livelihood from the forest became totally dependent on wage labour. At times of scarcity of labour work most of them migrated out. During these years only people started thinking about the adversity of forest degradation and its impact on their life.

Page 23: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Driving forces responsible for forest degradation

Impacts of forest degradation

• Growing human population. • Podu cultivation and conversion of

forest lands into agriculture. • Extraction of root - stocks. • Coupe permit to the local

contractors • Felling by the Orissa Forest

Development Corporation (OFDC). • Rapid urbanization in the nearby


• Shortage of fuelwood, timber, creepers, woods for cremation etc.

• Scarcity of rainfall. • Frequent drought. • Decrease in water level. • Drying up of streams. • Loss of livelihood. • Soil erosion. • Loss of soil fertility.

iii. Period after Forest protection Initiation of forest protection (the year 1986-87) The adverse impacts of forest degradation led to a better understanding of the role of the forest among the villagers. Few nearby villages had already begun to protect forests through village level initiative. These examples inspired the Dhani people who themselves had started thinking about ways to overcome the problem. The intervention of few knowledgeable individuals also helped in developing a resolve among the villagers to protect the degraded forest area. A series of meetings were held by the group of knowledgeable individuals on the possible way to tackle the problem and to initiate protection. Development of the Institution On the 10th of September 1987, Dhani South Paancha Mouza Jungle Suraksha Samiti, the forest committee of the five villages, was formed. The committee discussed extensively the various problems relating to the forest and their causative factors. The possible ways to tackle these problems were also discussed in detail and a work plan was determined by the committee to initiate forest protection. The major hindrance to the growth and betterment of the forest were identified as follows: • Taila Cultivation (clearing the lower regions of the hills and cultivating Brinjal and

Ragi by the villagers resulting in regular destruction of the forest. • Head loaders/Cycle loaders of fuelwood extracting the remaining vegetation and the

rootstock for sale. • Heavy grazing pressure inhibiting growth of new vegetation. • Fuelwood Extraction Pressure from nearby villages whose forests had already been

far too degraded to supply them with household fuel. Dhani South Panch Mouza Jungle Surakhya Samiti was developed for regulating forest protection as well as management. The committee looks after the protection, management, utilisation of the forest and related issues such as framing rules, resolving conflict, taking action against the forest offenders, maintaining records, implementation of decisions, conducting meetings, interaction with external agencies, disseminating information etc.

Page 24: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Protection In the initial period, active patrolling measures were adopted for protection of the area. A patrolling squad of 10 persons, 2 from each village kept vigilance on the forest. In case of infringement by outsiders this squad intimated the committee. The patrolling system was known as Thengapalli system. One member from each household, a total of ten persons/pallias3 went to the forest for voluntary patrolling everyday on rotational basis. In the system a stick (or thenga as called in Oriya) was kept in front of the house(s) on the prior evening which intimated about that households turn to go for patrolling duty. Subsequently the stick was passed on from one house to the other. Later on patrolling arrangement was changed to appointing of paid watchman. Initially, one watchman was appointed and after few months the number of watchmen was increased to two. Remuneration for the watchmen was initially arranged through household contribution (in the form of handful of rice per day for some time and in cash for some time). With the income of the Forest Protection Committee increasing due to taking lease for Cashew harvesting, the system of household contribution was no longer necessary.

3 Pallia is the person who has been assigned the patrolling duty.

Page 25: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Management When protection started there were few single rules. The main rule that prevailed was ‘no extraction of root stocks and no grazing’. Free movement of the villagers in the forest area was completely restricted during the first few years. Subsequently the committee framed rules, defining the rights and duties of the villagers. These rules, patrolling arrangements and penalty system vary with threat perception, condition of forests, seasonal variations in threats, and other factors such as scarcity of forest produce, pressure from other villages’ etc. There is also seasonal variation in the degree of restriction, to facilitate regeneration in rainy season, and prevent instances of fire in the summer etc. Due to active protection the forest has regenerated richly. The forest has a good growth of bamboo. After 1992, some bamboos were harvested to generate funds for payment of remuneration to watchers. In 1993, cleaning operation was undertaken to facilitate better growth of forest and extract some fuel- material. There are plans to harvest bamboo from this forest on a rotation basis with the active support of the Forest Department. After the forest-regenerated communities evolved rules for extraction of forest produces for domestic requirement especially fuel, house construction material and wood for funeral purpose. Specific rules were framed for such extraction and distribution amongst the member households. Some of the rules framed by the Dhani South Panch Mouza Committee for protection and management of forest were: Rules pertaining to protection and management of forests Protection initiation phase • Ten persons alongwith the forests guard would protect the forest. • If any person from the five villages, engages in destroying the forest then strong

actions with the help of the forest department would be taken against him. 4 Van Samrakshan Samiti, the forest protection committee formed by FD for joint management of forest.

Timeline of Forest Protection Before 1961 - Abundance of forest. 1961-62 - Coupe given to Pvt. contractors by FD. 1972 - Coupe given to OFDC. 1982-85 - Scarcity of forest produces. 1985-87 - Combined meetings of five villages facilitated by notable individuals of Arjunpur & Barapalli. 1987-88 - Forest protection committee was formed. 1989 - Watcher was appointed. The committee got registered. 1992 - The committee took the lease of cashew plantation to raise forest fund. 1993 - Paid watchers appointed 1994-95 - VSS4 formed by the FD that became the first ever VSS in the whole of Tangi Range. 1995 - Potentiality survey of bamboo by FD. Eco- restoration scheme carried out by Social Forestry Project. 1996 - VSS got approval from the FD & management plan was done. Rs33000/- was allotted for forest management work as a part of the Microplan.

Page 26: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

• If a person cuts wood or bamboo with the permission of the committee no action would be taken against him. Those who would cut without permission would be subject to severe action by the committee.

Later phase • The watchmen shall report to the Secretary before going for patrolling. • All the villagers shall support the Watchmen whenever required. • If a Watcher takes any bribe then he shall lose his job as well as the last salary. • Any produce that is found within the boundary of the protected area shall be kept

under the custody of the Committee till the members take a decision on that. • Forest produce for bonafide needs are taken from the forest after taking permission

of the committee. If anyone is found bringing any forest produce without the permission of the committee then he will be punished according to the rules of the committee. If the forest offenders do not obey the decisions of the committee then stringent measures will be taken against them

• After permission from the committee villagers from the five villages shall be allowed to take 100 bamboo at Rs 30/- for their needs. However, the bamboo cannot be sold/ bartered outside the village.

• Hunting is prohibited in the forest. Any person found hunting in the forest would be severely punished.

Forest Condition Peoples’ continuous effort has resulted in regeneration of forest cover in the area, which was once completely degraded. With vegetation, wild life has started coming back to the forest. According to people there are 250 different plant species or even more than that in the forest among which the dominating species are Asan, Kalucha, Kochila, Atundi, Achu, Siali, Kasi, Lembur etc. with some patches of bamboo growths. The fruit bearing tree species such as Mango, Jackfruit, and Jamun which were excessively found in the earlier period showed a tremendous decline. Wild buffalo, rabbit, monkey, Jackal, Wolf and many other animal and bird species inhabits the forest area. In addition to forest produces villagers perceive a number of other benefits accrue from their efforts to regenerate the forest. These include the prevention of soil erosion, increase in soil fertility, rising water table in the area and increase in rainfall. The stream that had dried up earlier now has again started flowing. These perceived benefits have strengthened the villager’s commitment to forest protection. ÌÍ�ÎÌ6Í�Î{ÍÍÐÏÏ�Ñ�Ì�Ñ�Î�Ò4Ó)ÔFÒÑ�Ì�Ñ�Î�Ò4Ó)ÔFÒ&ÕÕ ÓUÎ�ÖÓ)Î�Ö

The joint protection of Dhani Reserve Forest by five villages has emerged over the period of continuous and tedious efforts taken by the people. Till the early 60’s the flora and fauna of Dhani hill was undisturbed. After which the forest got destructed with rapid pace of industralisation and urbanization, coupe-policy of the Govt. and increasing pressure of the growing population. The degradation of forest had an adverse impact on

Page 27: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

people’s socio -economic life of which the poor people (forest dependents) were the worst sufferers. The local people have adopted different management system of the forest based at local needs, surrounding environment, their experience and ecological knowledge. Broadly the management system can be divided into following categories, which are: • Management Through Institution The five villages have developed an institution named “Dhani South Panch Mouza Jungle Surakhya Samiti “ for regulating forest protection as well as management. The committee looks after the protection, management, utilisation and related issues such as framing rules, resolving conflict, taking action against the forest offenders, distribution of benefits, maintaining records, implementation of decisions, conducting meeting, interaction with external agencies, disseminating information etc. Composition & Periodicity of the Institution The general body of the committee comprises all the elders of the household of the five villages as its member. The general body meets once in a year to review the activities of the committee, frame rules and regulation, selection of representatives for the executive body, approval of financial statement and budget for the next year and other forest related actions. The executive body comprises of the elected representatives from the five villages. The number of the representatives varies depending on the size and population of the village. The executive body meets once in a fortnight to dices various issues, opportunities, problems etc. However in emergency case such as forest offence, framing or amendment of existing rule, the executive committee can call a meeting of the general body at any time by serving a notice or by ‘Dakua’ (the person who intimates about the meeting place and date to the members).

Rules pertaining to the Functioning Committees 1987 1. A ten member working committee formed to look

after protection of forest. 2. The accounts of the Committee shall be presented

once in a year to the General Body. 1992 1. An advisory committee with 8 members formed to

guide the Executive Committee. 1993 1. The Executive Committee (14 members) shall meet

once in a fortnight. 2. Any member of the EC who remains absent from

three meetings shall be dismissed. 3. If any member abandons the meeting then a fine of

Rs. 5 shall be imposed. 4. If any person does not attend while being in the

village, a fine of RS 1/- will be imposed on him. 1994 1. A five-member vigilance sub-committee is formed to

check watcher’s activities. 2. An audit committee formed to audit the accounts. 1995 1. The total number of committee members increased to

21. For the first time women members included in the committee.

Page 28: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Funding of the Institution Initially the expenses of the committee, salary for watcher etc. were arranged through household contributions known as Muthi chaula (means hand full of rice). In later periods, when the committee was able to raise its own fund the system of household contribution stopped. The committee managed to make some fund by taking on lease the village cashewnut plantation and reauction it to other party. Besides, the committee also made some money from the fine amounts imposed against forest offences like cutting green branches, killing wild animals. The account of the committee is audited yearly by an independent auditor and the audited accounts are presented before the general body for approval. Decision Making All the forest management decisions are taken in the general body meeting, such as how and when to carry silvicultural operations (which includes thinning, pruning), amendment or introduce of any rules and regulation, forest development activities, financial matters etc. The general body of the committee is the decision-maker where as the executive body is the caretaker as well as implementor of these decisions. • Management Through Protection: In the initial period of forest management the communities took up complete protection of the degraded patch. People were restricted from entering into the forest area. No one was allowed to extract rootstocks and graze their cattle in the forest. However the pressure of the near by villages on the forest for collection of rootstocks still existed. So, to check the outside pressure and keep a close vigil on the forest the communities adopted patrolling measures/palli system5. In later period paid watcher substituted the palli system. Presently there are two watchers looking after the forest. Rules regarding protection: + The watchman shall report to the secretary before going for patrolling. + If a watcher takes bribe then he shall lose his job as well as the last salary. + If the watcher wants leave he should inform the committee, other wise he will lose

his salary. + All the villagers shall support the watchman whenever required. + At any time in between 8a.m to 5p.m the vigilance committee may supervise the

work of the watcher without any prior information. • Management Through Restriction: In the initial phase of protection strict restriction was imposed on free movement of people in the forest area, cattle grazing and extraction of any forest produce. In subsequent years, some relaxation was brought about in these restrictions. To regulate the forest in sustainable manner the villagers has adopted some prohibitive measures like: + Nobody can enter into forest with an axe. + Strict restriction on felling of green trees. Any person found involved in it will strictly be punished and penalised.

5 Agroup of ten persons, one member from each & every household went everyday for voluntary patrolling on rotational basis.

Page 29: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

+ No one can collect or cut timber, bamboo and poles without the permission of the committee. + Grazing is not allowed in the forest during the rainy season (July- September) to allow regeneration. + People are restricted to enter into forest during summer (March- June) to prevent the incidence of fire. + Hunting of wild animals is strictly prohibited. Rules pertaining to penalty + The person, who violates the rule, is fined. The working body of the committee that is the most functional body decides the fine. The committee also punishes persons with monetary fines those who cut green branches or bamboo without permission. Such fine amount varies with varying size and species. The usual fine against cutting valuable timber species such as Saguan, Dhaura, Sisoo, Asan etc. is fixed as RS 1001/-. For other trees the fine amount is RS. 101/-. + Strong action would be taken against any person found involved in hunting wild animals. Help would be taken from the forest department to take punitive measures against him. • Management Through Sustainable Utilisation : Apart from attempts at conservation though more or less strict protection, the village communities also have traditions of conservation coupled with sustainable use. After the regeneration of the forest cover the communities allowed sustainable extraction of forest products to meet their bonafide requirements. Some management practices were adopted for sustainable utilisation of the resource that includes: ⇒ Annual cleaning and thinning operations before rainy season so that it provides

fuelwood, which is generally stored to use during rainy days. For fuelwood no green trees are allowed for cutting, only shrubs of miscellaneous species and dead, fallen trees and branches are extracted. The extracted products are equally shared among all the households of the five villages.

⇒ People are allowed to collect berries, tubers, lai (climbers), siali leaves, fuelwood

(only dry, fallen, diseased branches & twigs) etc. People can collect green wood only for funeral purpose. Collection of these forest products are free and without permission.

⇒ For bamboo, timber poles for house construction and agricultural implements prior

permission of the committee is required. To avoid conflict between the user groups and maximum utilisation of the resource they followed certain extraction modalities.

Page 30: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

⇒ The tribals and harijans whose livelihood is largely dependent on forest produces are

allowed to collect dry, fallen, twigs and branches and siali leaves respectively for selling.

⇒ The neighbouring villages (other than the panch mouza) can obtain bamboo and

timber from the forest only after getting permission of the committee and paying an amount for the forest produces. Such special concession is given on the occasion of community festivals & only to those villages which do not have forest and to the individuals for repairing their house in case of fire accidents.

• Management Through Economic Upliftment of the Poorer Sections Of the five villages the tribal and harijan people of Balarampur, Kiyapalla and Panaspur villages depend on forest for deriving a subsistence livelihood. They are dependent on different forest products such as fuelwood, lai or climbers, siali leaves (Bauhinia vahilii), tubers etc. for their livelihood .The villagers say that there exists a gap between present demand and supply of the forest produce. This imbalance in future may lead to conflict over the resource. Therefore there is a need to minimize the dependence and control the pressure of this group. The committee has taken an initiative to negotiate with the FD and other government and non-government agencies to carry out economic developmental programs. Following actions has already been initiated: • A dairy unit has been set up comprising of 40 members. • Training imparted by FD to women of harijan community for processing of siali


EXTRACTION MODALITIES Timber and Poles: The applicants have to apply to the committee for his/ her requirements mentioning the purpose and quantity. Then a group of committee members (those known as ‘Inquiry Committee’ ) enquire the case and after completion of the requisite work allow the person to collect wood from the forest. The applicants have to pay a nominal charge for collection that varies in accordance to the tree size and type of tree species. Bamboo and Fuelwood: A slightly different system is followed for fuelwood and bamboo extraction. The decision for cleaning, thinning and extraction of bamboo is taken collectively in the village meeting. Harvesting of bamboo is done in patches. Generally matured bamboo are only selected for the extraction. For fuelwood, no green trees are allowed for cutting, only shrubs of miscellaneous species are allowed.

Page 31: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Agricultural land: Cultivation being the main occupation, the people of Dhani villages gave high priority to agricultural fields for better use & management. The practice of cultivating traditional paddy variety still exists in the area. People depend on monsoons for water to irrigate their fields. Because of lack of adequate irrigation facilities the fields remain vacant for most part of the year. For better land use and effective management of the land resources, adequate irrigation facilities have to be made through wells, deep well, constructing water structures. Grazing land: All the villages have grazing land (gochar). The village people commonly manage the grazing land. The tribal people of Panaspur village are desirous to plant fruit bearing trees (especially mango, jackfruit species), acacia, eucalyptus etc. in their grazing land. People have already initiated efforts in planting seedling of the species. Presently other villages want to use the grazing land exclusively for grazing purpose. Gramya Jungle: Gramya jungle (forests included within the village boundary) is collectively managed by the individual village. The degradation of the R.F. resulted in severe hardships for the local people. The villagers felt heavily the scarcity of fuelwood; wood for funeral pyre and these adverse situations compelled the villagers to protect forest patches within their village boundary. The village people exercise their rights and concessions on gramya jungle to collect fuelwood, medicinal herbs, edible fruits, berries, leaves etc. and wood for cremation. However, timber cutting either for commercial or subsistence is not allowed. The forest is protected by patrolling on rotational basis by the villagers. Every household participates in patrolling system. One pallia (person on patrolling duty) moves around the forest everyday. No one is allowed to cut green tree from the forest without permission. Pond: Of the five villages only Arjunpur and Kiyapalla have village ponds. The village elders manage the pond. They are mainly used for bathing and more significantly for fish farming. Cattle’s bathing is strictly restricted. The expenses for fish farming is met from household contribution in terms of cash. The pond water at times is used to irrigate the vegetable fields. The community takes the cleaning activity of the pond after every two or three years, in which male member of each & every household in the village participates. ×4Ø×4Ø"ÙÙ$Ø�ÚØ�ÚcÛÛ�Ü�Ý�Ø�Þ�ß�àÐáOÜÜ�Ý�Ø�Þ�ß�à$áOÜ ââ-ãã àÐß âà�ß â Û Û�Þ�áÞ�á

Legal & Policy issues

Page 32: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

The communities have been protecting the forests since a decade, yet they feel insecure about their rights over the forest. They feel the need for greater legal rights and tenurial security. In the absence of legal rights the Government continues to deny the rights and ownership of local people over the forests and forest products. The forest protecting committee likes to have a legal status and recognised as an independent body. Empowerment While legal and policy issues are important, equally important are efforts for strengthening the community institution so that they are in a position to take up increased management responsibilities. Efforts should be made to involve people in policy formulation and implementation process to enable them to contribute in protecting and managing the forest effectively. Bamboo harvesting The Forest Department has made a potentiality survey of the forest and an assessment of the bamboo availability in the forest. It is estimated that approximately one lakh bamboo can be harvested every year. The department is facilitating necessary administrative clearances to allow the committee to harvest bamboo. The harvested produce shall be utilised to meet the needs of the villagers. The committee has a plan to sell the rest bamboo and the income incurred from the sale of bamboo shall be deposited in the village fund. This fund shall be utilized to carry out forest and village development activities. Income generating activities for direct forest dependents: The lack of employment opportunity or alternative income has made the poor tribal people of Kiyapalla village dependent on harvesting fuelwood for sale. Headloading is a major economic activity carried throughout the year. The majority of headloaders are tribal women. They had to spend long hours to travel to the forest, in collecting & selling firewood. They wanted alternative employment to stop cutting firewood. Livelihood linked to NTFPs Efforts should be made in the direction to encourage them to seek some alternative income source utilizing available NTFPs and provided with marketing support to increase their income from the sale of NTFPs. Processing of NTFPs like aonla, bahada etc., making bamboo products, rush mats should be encouraged at local levels. The tribal women also wanted to do some fruit plantation to obtain a regular income. The harijan women feels the need of processing siali leaves & make leaf plates to give value addition. During discussions with the women, they expressed for the need of plate stitching machine to earn a better income from the sale of leaf plates. The committee is trying to seek some alternative economic activity for the forest dependent groups. The committee gave a proposal for the same in the micro plan prepared with the joint efforts of the Forest protection committee and the Forest Department. The department has already initiated imparting training to women on processing of Siali leaves and has given two leaf plate-stitching machines in Arjunpur and Barapalli village. Agriculture

Page 33: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

The main occupation of the villagers is agriculture. Farmers cultivate chiefly paddy in their fields. Only one crop (during monsoons) is grown throughout the year. Besides paddy, some grow pulses, sugarcane, vegetables etc. Due to lack of irrigation facilities the farmers are unable to grow second crops. A need was felt for constructing water-harvesting structures for sustenance of agricultural activities. This would provide the agriculturists the scope to cultivate cash crops creating opportunities of labor for the landless and the forest dependent groups. Other agriculture related aspirations • In rainy season number of nalas, streamlets, flows through the forest. The water gets

wasted because of absence of water storing structures. If rainwater can be stored, it will help in the enhancement of the agricultural productivity.

• The people need to be encouraged to practice multiple cropping to maintain soil fertility & increase their income.

• People would like to use iron plough if provided to them at subsidised price by Govt.

• Farmers desire to form cooperative to help in timely supply of seeds, fertilizers, loan to the small farmers.

• Efforts should be taken to widespread the knowledge on new agricultural techniques and practices at block & panchayat level by conducting exhibitions and demonstrations.

Dairy-farming The dairy farmers have recently taken up cultivation of grass like NV-21, MP Cherry that makes good cattle fodder. Efforts have already been initiated on experimental basis and after seeing the feasibility they wish to go for large-scale cultivation. An application has been forwarded to the committee to allow them five acres of land within the forest area for cultivation. Protection to wild animals Wild animals have started coming back to the dense regenerated forest. The forest lack adequate water bodies. So the animals has to come to the lower land of Dhani to drink water which increases the probability of hunting. There have been some cases of killing wild animal in recent days. Panch mouja people wishes to dig water pits inside the dense forest for the security of wild animals. Environmental awareness The elderly people feel that it is necessary to bring environmental awareness in the society. They say that educational institutions are the best media to bring in environmental awareness. The students having a strong will to take up the challenges can educate different societies about environment and its associated problems in a better way. Its hightime that compulsory environment education is introduced in schools to ensure wider dissemination of the importance of healthy environment. Exhibitions on ecology and environment can be organised in villages to create interests among children and to involve them.

Page 34: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Youths from Barapalli village suggested for a library in the village for disseminating environmental knowledge to the people. Promoting herbal knowledge There is a decline in the trend of herbal medicine use and its practice. With advent in medicine and technology there is a gradual shift from herbal to alleopathy. The herbal man from Barapalli village expressed that training to youths on medicinal herbs at local level would promote usage of herbal medicines as well as their knowledge. The efforts & initiatives of five villages to protect and conserve the forest have been recently recognised by the Government. In 1997 Dhani Panch Mouja was awarded with the honor of Prakruti Mitra Award (Nature’s friend) by the state government.

Page 35: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

ä ä åjåOæ�çJååjåOæ�çJå èêéOëèêéOëOìì^ìUíFérî&í�ïì)íJérî&í�ï éé�ðð)ññ�ëë�îî&òò ð)ó�éð)ó�é

Conflicts within a village or with the outside villages may take place due to distribution of resource, use/ control over the resource, inequitable benefits sharing and many other factors. Example of such conflicts though not major is described here. The initial initiative came from Arjunpur village, which is general caste village and tribal villages were included because of the consideration that it would not be possible to protect the forests by excluding them. Also at the initial stage, Kiyapalla village which is a tribal village was not participating actively in village meetings, the reasons being that for these people forest was the major and the only source of sustenance and the fear of losing access to the forest by its protection. The evacuation of these people from the “Taila” land also contributed to their remaining aloof from the protection efforts. However steps were taken to involve this village. The neighboring villages Kantasiri, Paiksahi, Jhiripada, Kadamjhola, Godasahi etc. the predominantly tribal villages, were also dependent on Dhani forest. Initiation of forest protection by panch mouja committee restricted these people’s access over the forest leading to resentment and constant threat of pilferage. The Panch Mouja Committee fined people of outside villages who violated the rules. Common meetings were held regularly with these villages to decide the infringement cases. The Forest protection committee handled the conflict situations and in worst case only sought the help of FD. The Panch mauja committee in later years facilitated these villages to initiate protection of a new patch to meet their basic forestry needs. In the year 1991, the villages formed a committee with the help of Panch mouja committee and have taken up protection of Compartment 7 & 8 of Dhani south RF adjacent to the protecting forest of five villages. Conflict over the resource sharing: Dhani RF forest boundary overlaps the boundary of the revenue village Kadamjhola along with the village boundary of five protecting villages. Now that the panch mouja have taken up a big forest patches in the process of forest management the Kadamjhola village is left with no area. Though in initial years the protecting committee tried to involve the neighboring village in the protection process but they did not take any interest in the protection process. Now that the forest has grown up the latter village wants a share in the protected patch to have their own forest to derive a regular sustenance. In-spite of the fact that Kadamjhola village did not participate with the five villages in protection process for these many years, the panch mauja committee is ready to involve Kadamjhola for joint protection & management of Dhani forest. Conflict over the management of the resource: The general caste villages have dominated the activity of forest protection. The tribal people feel neglected and left out in the process. They are unhappy with the working of committee. They speak that for the same type of offence the tribals had to pay greater fine while the committee has a casual attitude towards the general caste. The tribals have

Page 36: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

stopped coming to the meetings of the committee. This inequity may gradually create a gap between them and the forest protection activity. There should be transparency in the activities of the committee and equal participation from all the sections. Decisions of the committee should be fair and unbiased towards all the groups. Conflict over the use of resource: 1. Fuelwood gathering While the kabari tribal of Kiyapalla village are dependent on headloading people of other castes from nearby villages generally carry wood on cycle to sell. As the former group collect dry, fallen twigs, branches they do not get a good price of their collection in compared to the collectors who bring green wood in their cycles. The kabari women want that they should be allowed to cut branches of trees like Kalucha, Kochila, Keruan etc., that grows fast. The Siali collectors oppose to this. These trees give supports to Siali climbers to spread out & cutting trees may destroy siali plants. The user groups could not come to any consensus. There is also a feeling that once tree cutting is allowed it may lead to free access of the resource resulting in forest destruction. 2. Bamboo harvesting In a discussion with the user groups on bamboo harvesting, the views of Panaspur village people seemed to be different from other groups & showed some degree of dissatisfaction. They said that they started forest protection with the objective to meet the forestry needs of local people and not for commercial purpose. The existing rules allow the villagers to collect only twenty bamboos in a year, which do not meet their needs. So the committee should first think to meet the local needs of bamboo & then can go for selling. Threat from outside villages: The forest has got a good regenerative forest cover and hosts diverse species compared to other nearby forests. Moreover the two forest guards appointed by the community are not able to keep vigil over a large forest area. This has resulted to increased threats from outside villages. There has been an increase in cutting trees and killing of wild animals from the protecting patch. The community institution needs to be strengthened with some penal powers to take action against the forest offenders & to stop them from carrying illegal forest activities. A squad committee was formed in recent days to check hunting of animals. Mismatch between Committee’s rules & Govt. policy: The working plan prepared by FD defines the rights & access of the people of adjoining villages over the forest, which creates misunderstanding between the protecting and non-protecting villages. Such rights go against the interests of Panch mouja people who had been protecting the forest since a decade. There is a need to clarify the legal rights of the communities & ensure greater tenurial security. Also in the working plan Dhani forest has been declared as degraded forest. Now when the forest has got profuse bamboo growths & the community wants to harvest the produce it has to wait for the Govt. clearances.

Page 37: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

ô�õ)ö�÷Oø�ùô�õ)ö�÷Oø�ùjúú�ûû�üü&ýý õ)öõ)ö ÷÷Lüü�ùFûùrû�üü�øøjþ6ÿþ6ÿ For the communities Dhani forest is much more than trees and is valued for the array of products and services which it provides. The rural populace derives forest products to meet their domestic requirements. Forest contributes in increasing soil fertility, prevents soil erosion, and helps in water level increase. It also contributes to day to day livelihood of many landless people. The villagers greatly feel the intrinsic value of Dhani and aspire to protect & conserve all the species. People prioritised certain plant species that needs urgent protection and conservation on the basis of availability and their utility & economic value. The regenerative forest cover has few trees of Harida, Mango(Mangifera indica), Sisoo (Dalbergia sisoo), Piyasal(Pterocarpus marsupium), Salapa, Kendu(Diospyros melanoxylon), Mahul(Madhuca latifolia), Kusum(Schleichera oleosa), Lohajungi(Ixora pavetta), Kanda, and Karanj species. These trees were once abundantly found in the forest but there has been a tremendous decline after degradation. Prioritised Species: Timber Species Local Name Scientific Name Local Name Scientific Name Moriyan Zanthozylum budraga Majurgudia Kasi Bridellia retusa Piyasal Pterocarpus marsupium Kusum Schleichera oleosa Moi Lannea caromenelica Phasi Anogeissus acuminata Kurum Lembur Sisoo Dalbergia sisoo Bamboo Bambusa arundica Giringa Pterospermum xylocarpum Fuelwood Species Dhaman Grewia tiliaefolia Bhurukundi Chaluniya Giringa Pterospermum xylocarpum Phatabarang Atundi Combretum decandrum Kalucha Diospyros sylvatica Kochila Strychnos noxvomica Tuber Species Karba Dioscorea pentaphylla Tunga Pichuli Aranga Religious Species Mango Mangifera indica Osta Ficus religiosa Bael Aegle marmelos Sahada Strebulus asper Bara Ficus bengalensis Ashok Saraca asoca Neem Azadirachata indica Medicinal Species Aonla Emblica officinalis Neem Azadirachata indica Patalgaral Rauwolfia serpentina Harida Terminalia chebula Bahada Terminalia bellerica Bhuinkakharu Pueraria tuberosan Sahajmari Krushna Khirakanchini

Page 38: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

People attached high protection value to the wild animals and birds. The protecting villages suggested for enforcement of strict laws and punishment against the poachers. Strategy: Strengthening Community Institution The forest protection committee needs to have a legal identity and be an independent body equipped with adequate powers to carry out conservation. The committee has to be integrated in every stage of the development processes, from their initial setting of policies to their eventual implementation. Policy Changes Forest department act as custodian of forest. The decision making power to manage and control lies in the hands of the department. It is likely that the external decisions get imposed over the villager’s priority very often demotivating the people. So changes have to be brought in the present policy giving more rights to people over the forest and forest products. Steps have to be taken to make the policy more people oriented. Co-ordination among GOs, NGOs & Community At the Govt. level, financial decentralization, accountability of officials, coordination between different departments and programs and harmonisation of policies and laws, need to be achieved. The local community institutions can be given the power to exercise ownership right over the natural resources and channelise fund for forest development activities. State level discussions with NGOs, FD, different government departments and communities need to be coordinated to carry out a feasible conservation strategy. Participation/Involvement of locals The local people ought to be considered as the stakeholders and not merely as the beneficiaries. Their role has to be recognised in planning and implementation of the policy, if communities are to be effective managers of the resources around them. Women are the major forest user group and are mostly affected by the rules and restrictions made by the committee. Greater participation of women groups has to be encouraged in committee’s activity and decision making. The forest protection committee should call for a greater representation of this group. Alternative Employment Opportunities The direct forest dependent groups have to be provided with alternatives to earn a living. Steps need to be taken by the committee & the FD to help the people derive livelihood by utilizing NTFPs. The communities have to be assure that they get a better price from the sale of NTFPs. Awareness - With the empowerment of the people it is necessary to bring in environmental awareness in the society. This requires the spread of the knowledge of the bio-diversity, its usage and conservation. School villages and education institutions can better take up

Page 39: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

the documentation and enhance the knowledge. Bio-diversity study needs to be made an integral part of our education system. Suggested role by the communities for the key actors in forest protection and management: Forest Department: + The Forest department needs to play a supportive role. + Provide technical inputs on silvicultural operations, processing of NTFPs etc. + Help the forest protecting villages by taking actions against the forest offenders. + Decentralise the fund allocation to the committee to carry out forest development

activities. + Take up plantation programs in the area where there is no forest. + Build up market linkages for sale NTFPs. + Create awareness among the people. + Increase interaction between different government agencies and panchayat. Panchayat: + Build coordination between forest protection committee, FD, and other Government

agencies. + Allocate funds to the village committee for forest developmental activities. + Act as a conflict resolving mechanism (resolve inter village conflicts). + Initiate protection activities in non-protecting villages. NGOs: + Policy advocacy. + Disseminate policy level information at local level. + Facilitate interaction between the Government, FD and the Committee. + Establish linkages between forest protecting villages. + Create awareness among the people about bio-diversity. + Help the committee in processing and marketing forest products. + Provide training support to community for capability enhancement, upgradation of


Page 40: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Impact of forest degradation & community forest protection on Kabari and Harijan women Phase of forest abundance In the initial phase when forests were abundant, Kabari people used to depend completely on forests for their survival. Men and women went together to the forest for collection of forest products. Majority of forest products collected during that time was for direct consumption and only a few products were bartered for some essential things. Phase of forest degradation Due to degradation of forests, forest products became scarce. In this period Kabari community looked out for alternatives for sustenance. In the initial period men took up labour work in the nearby towns and cities. Later on, they moved to far off places & stayed outside for months. This trend culminated in the male members of the community going out for"Dadan"(seasonal migration) for five to six months every year to far off places. During these days they leave their family behind in the village and it became the responsibility of women to take care of the family. Having no other options women had to depend on the degrading forest. They started selling some forest produce to meet the needs of the family. At times she worked as daily labourer in agricultural fields to arrange food for the family. Thus women besides doing household activities like bringing water, cooking food, child care etc, started playing a major role in sharing the responsibility as a breadwinner of the house. Further forest degradation put a lot of strain on women. With the receding forest cover the female members now had to travel long distances to collect forest produces (especially fuelwood) for self-use and for selling. Phase of forest protection The initial stages of forest protection imposed strict restriction on collecting forest products. Restriction on extraction of forest produces especially the fuelwood hitted the poor households of tribal and harijan community the most, as they cannot afford to buy fuelwood for cooking. Because of strict closure of the forest they traveled more and more to far off places to other forests to bring fuelwood, bamboo and other required forest produces. But as the forest protection gathered momentum, the access to these forests also got marginalised and this put a blow on their source of forest dependent livelihood. After the initiation of forest protection the committee framed rules and regulations to control access over the forest and for the sustainable use of the forest produces. The rules permitted for extraction of certain forest produces in the later period when there was a good regeneration of forest cover. People were allowed to collect dry, fallen twigs and branches for fuelwood use. Extracting green wood for personal use without the permission of the Dhani panch mouja committee and for selling purpose was strictly prohibited. However, the tribal and harijan communities were given special provisions. The tribal community is allowed to extract fuelwood for sale but they can only collect

Page 41: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

dry, fallen twigs and branches and no green wood. Where as the women of harijan community collects and sells Siali (Bauhinia vahilii) leaves to make their livelihood. Change in Gender Roles: Earlier both men and women of tribal community went to forest to collect forest produces for the household consumption. There was no major distinction between their contribution to the sustenance of the family. Later on, with forest degradation men gradually moved away from the forest activity and traveled to far off places to earn money. With men being away from the family the responsibilities of women increased. They engaged themselves in livelihood activity. Tribal/kabari and harijan community women apart from their daylong forest activities, have the sole responsibility of doing other household chores. They spend most of their time in forest going for collection and selling the produces. As a result of this, the children tend to get neglected and the burden of household chores falls on girl-children. The day in the life of a woman is tedious. She has to perform many duties and multiple roles as a mother, wife and daughter-in-law as well as the main bread earners (A study done on “Impa ct of forest degradation on Kabari women” by Vasundhara). Major forest livelihood activities performed by women: 1. Fuelwood gathering Fuelwood gathering is a primary economic activity of the tribal families contributing a larger share to the family income performed by female members of the households. A tribal woman's day in Kiyapalla village begins early in the morning long before sunrise. She performs all the domestic activities like cooking food, cleaning house, bringing water, taking care of children, looking after the cattle etc. Besides, she also engages herself in livelihood activities to feed her family. She put in 8-9 hours everyday travelling to the forest for collecting fuelwood. She usually leave for the forest early in the morning around 8 am after doing all the domestic activities and return in the afternoon at around 3 p.m. After having her food (usually water rice with left over curry) she again sits down to chop wood and make bundles to sell in the next day. She spends another 5-6 hours in selling the collected produce in the nearest market (8 Kms) in Tangi and Chandpur. Sometimes she is able to sell the wood in local villages but she fetch a lower price than selling in the market. This shows the hectic days of tribal women, which she spends in all 365 days in a year. In view of the fact that she spends so much time in doing such a strenuous activity she hardly earns RS 25-30 from the sale of the produce in a day that hardly meets the expense of one time food and that too only rice. 2. Siali leaves collection Harijan women are dependent on collection & sale of siali leaves for livelihood. Besides they also manage to get some labour work in agricultural fields during crop seasons. They too bear the poor state as the tribal women. Women undergo hardships and put lot of strain for the survival of their family. She is able to make only RS 25-30 in a day after spending long hours in the forest. Periodical change is observed in collection amount with seasonal variations. During summer and winters the collection gets reduced and they hardly collects 500-600 leaves in a day. The leaves are dried, tied into

Page 42: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

bundles (5 leaves in 1 bundle) and stocked for selling. Marketing is done once in a week. Women go in a group to Tangi/Chandpur market and sell the produce either in hotels or to the leaf plate making traders. Sometimes local traders from neighbouring villages collect leaves from their home but they generally pay fewer prices. ACTIVITY SCHEDULE OF A DAY TIME ACTIVITIES Around 5.00 am Get up from bed 5.00-8.00 am Clean the house and cattle shed

Wash utensils Feed the cattle Fetch water Cook food and serve

8.00-3.00 p.m.

Have her food(water rice) Go to forest for collection of fuelwood / siali leaves

3.00-6.00 p.m. Return from the forest Take bath and have meal(water rice with left over curry) Settle to chop wood pieces & make bundles/Dry siali leaves and tie into bundles In the marketing day go to Tangi/Chandpur to sell the produce

6.00-10.00 p.m. Clean house Bring water Feed cattle Cook food and serve

10.00 p.m. Go to bed Social restrictions An adult women in tribal and harijan communities carry out both the in-house and outside activities. Women of these communities enjoy greater social mobility to go out of home and earn a living. The female members carry out livelihood activities like collection of forest produces and selling. A girl child indulges in domestic activities from her early childhood. She collects firewood from the plantation area/the gramya jungle (village forest) when she is hardly of 7-8 years. With their mothers away in the forest girl-children holds the burden of household chores looking after their younger brother and sisters. And at the age of 10-11 years she start going to the forest with her mother to earn a living. Women of higher caste (Khandayat community) are subjected to greater social restriction. They generally confine their movements to domestic chores. The economic activities are considered as men's affairs. It is considered as shame if the female members of the house move out to make a living. The married and aged women are not subjected to the same extent of social subjugation as the unmarried girls. Even when the young girls go to fetch water they move through the back door of the house. Development aspirations As the villages initiated forest protection the free access over the forest got marginalised. The tribal women/fuelwood gatherers were forbidden to enter to the forest

Page 43: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

with axe or any other instruments. This hit their major & the sole livelihood means. The livelihood has been further adversely affected by the adoption of selling firewood as occupation by castes other than tribals. These people bring wood in cycles and bullock carts and as the kabari women carry wood on heads are unable to meet the market demand. Added to, they are very often subjected to verbal harassment by the watcher appointed by the forest protection committee and have to pay heavy fine. They expressed that they feel offensive to face these situations. Also the siali collectors are unhappy doing the tedious forest activity. Their dependence on forests can be compensated if some alternative income source can be sort out for them with Government's support. However, they suggested that if income generating activities like processing units of Aonla, Bahada, making bamboo crafts & date-palm leaves (khajuri) mats if can be designed and promoted then dependence on forest for livelihood can be reduced. Decision making process in Family In tribal and harijan households as women are involved in earning so they decide and manage how to spend money in arranging day to day food for the family. In the time when men migrate out for months female of the house carries the entire responsibility of the family members. In the family women have a stand in decision making but the major decisions are always taken by the menfolk. But in case of higher caste the male members take all the decisions and women follow to what the men say. in Community The cultural factors existing in the village inhibit the women from participating in forest protection activity. Women have no say in the decisions which determine the forest management and extraction patterns. On the other hand women have less exposure and contact with the outside world than men. This inhibits women's participation. The fact that the forest dependent women come from the lower caste further adds to the inhibiting factor. It is felt that there is a need to involve women in the protection activity and encouraged to participate actively in the process. Kabari and harijan women the forest dependents are the ones who are largely affected by the decisions taken and the rules formed by the committee. So the protection process can be made more effective and sustainable involving this group. The primary community institution did not have any female representatives. But after the committee being registered as VSS by the FD under JFM women have been enrolled as members. Presently where there are 21 members in Dhani Panch Mouja committee only 3 are females. Though they have been included as the members but they have never been consulted while taking any decisions or forming rules for the management of the forest. There is a growing concern about gender equity in terms of women representation and their participation in the management of the common forest resource more among the forest dependent women groups and wish to get involved in the process.

Page 44: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management






MC FC MA FA Self Use Sale FW from gramya jungle

T &H Gen. T & H

T & H 33

FW from forest

Gen. T & H

T & H 33 33

FW from Dhani forest

KT 33 Women Local villages, Tangi/ Chandpur

Siali leaves H 33 Women Local traders, Tangi/ Chandpur

Edible leaves T & H 33 33 Women Local villages

Kendu leaves KT 33 Women Local traders

Khajur leaves KnT KnT 33 33 Men & Women

Local villages

Mushrooms T & H 33 Women Berries from Dhani forest

T & H 33

Berries from GJ

T &H 33

Tubers KnT T & H 33 33 Women Local villages

Creeper (lai) Gen. T & H

T & H 33

Creeper (lai) T T & H 33 Women Local villages, Tangi Chandpur

Tooth sticks T & H 33 33 Women Local villages


Page 45: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

1. District Gazetteer

2. A Report on Community Forest Management : a case study from Orissa, Vasundhara

3. A Paper on Impact of forest degradation on Kabari women, Vasundhara

4. Padhi G.S, Forest resources of Orissa

5. SinghSamant N.C. CHILIKA 6. STATE OF ORISSA’S ENVIRONMENT, Council of Professional Social Workers,



Page 46: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Study villages Barapalli, Panaspur, Arjunpur, Balarampur, Kiyapalla

Panchayat Kerandatangi Block Raj Ranpur Tahasil Raj Ranpur District Nayagarh Post office Patia (Mal) Police station Raj Ranpur Range office Tangi Forest Division Puri Nearest Bus stop Tangi


Arjunpur Barapalli Balarampur Kiyapalla Panaspur No.of H.H. 73 62 35 30 14 Castewise Household General 52 43 04 -- -- S.C. 21 19 11 -- -- S.T. -- -- 20 30 14 Population 412 408 205 163 56 Castewise Population General 322 325 21 -- -- S.C. 90 83 68 -- -- S.T. -- -- 116 163 56 Occupation 6AG,WL,




Institutions School(upto class VII), Temple

Youth club, Dairy unit, Temple


Mahila samiti, Non-formal education centre


Village resources

Pond, Wells, Stream, Tubewells, Gramya Jungle,Grazing land, Social Forestry Plantation

Health Primary health centre at Tangi

Dhani (South) Panch Mouja Jungle Committee A Structural Overview

6 AG - Agriculturists, WL - Wage labor, SLC - Siali leaf collectors, DF - Dairy farmers, SH - Service holders, FPC - Forest produce collectors(fuelwood, bamboo, climbers, kendu leaves), BU - Buisness(village shop), TC - Tuber collectors,

Page 47: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Office Bearers

Elected/Selected representatives from Executive body

Executive Body Elected/Selected representatives

from General body

General Body

One member from each household of all the five villages

� � � Arjunpur Barapalli Kiyapalla

� Balarampur � Panaspur


Page 48: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Income Penalty Auctioning of seized, fallen & dead trees Money generated through voluntary labor Lease of village cashew plantation Selling of cleaned forest materials, bamboo

Jungle Panthi

Salary to Watchmen Forest & Village development activities

Other forest related activities


Annexure – b.i

Page 49: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Local Name Present Ownership

Use Pattern

DHANI R.F Dhani mundia People & FD Forest Produces, Grazing PROTECTED FOREST

Gramya Jungle Revenue department

Collection of Forest Produces, Grazing

PLANTATI ON Kaju jungle Acacia jungle

FD & OFDC Forest Produces

ORCHARD Tota Village Grazing, fuelwood GRAZING LAND Gochar Village Grazing CHECK DAM Bandha Village Irrigation STREAM Jharana Village Irrigation, bathing PADDY FIELDS Chasa jami Village Paddy Cultivation, Other

seasonal crops, Grazing WELL Kuan Village Drinking Water POND Pokhari Village Pisiculture, Irrigation to

vegetable fields, bathing HABITIATION Gaon Village Homestead land GRASS LAND Anabadi Village Grazing THICKET Padar Village Collection of Forest

Produces, Grazing

Page 50: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Annexure – b.ii

LIST OF FOREST PRODUCTS COLLECTED Forest Produces Species Type Fuelwood

Kalucha, Halda, Dhaman, Phatabarang, Jamu, Phuluri, Akandi, Jantari, Moriyan, Bhurukundi, Giringa, Chaluniya, Atundi

Leaves Siali, Kendu, Khajuri Tubers Karba, Tunga, Kanta alu, Kasa alu, Pita alu, Masiya alu, Leu alu

Pichuli alu Mushrooms Luni chatu, Nada chatu Bamboo Kanta baunsa Berries Jhumpuri koli, Kusum koli, Jamu koli, Khajuri koli

Tooth sticks Muturi, Karanj

Creepers (lai) Khalua, Panua, Chemani, Siali, Atendi

Edible leaves Sambar kansiri, Naturi, Chakunda, Jhumpuri, Lahanga,

Bhadaliya, Juan, Gandhana, Dhuanla, Pitasag, Madranga

Page 51: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Agriculturists Wood for agricultural implements

Moriyan, Majurgudia, Kasi, Piyasal, Kusum, Moi, Giringa, Phasi.

All Wood for house construction

Kasi, Lembur, Sisoo, Bamboo, Piyasal, Kurum, Moi, Batra.

Fuelwood Collectors Livelihood Dhaman, Bhurukundi, Giringa, Chaluniya, Phatabarang, Atundi, Kalucha, Bamboo.

Tuber Collectors Self consumption & for sale

Tunga, Karaba, Pichuli.

Dairy farmers & others Fodder Phasi leaves, Peepal leaves, Grass

Herbalman Medicine Harida, Bahada, Amla, Neem, Patalagaruda, Sahajamari, Khirakanchini, Bhuinkakharu, Krushna.


All Protection from outside threat


All Ecological importance Maximum animal species

Herbalman Medicine Buffalo, Bat


Herbalman Medicine Kochilakhai

All Ecological importance Maximum bird species

Page 52: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Annexure-c. i

INVENTORY OF PLANT SPECIES Sl.No Local Name Habit LifeForm Scientific Name 1. Ankukoli Herb Alengium hexapetalum

2. Acacia Tree Acasia formis

3. Achu Tree Morinda pubescence

4. Agabathu Herb

5. Agara Shrub

6. Agasti Herb Sesbania grandiflora

7. Amari Shrub Ipomea sepiaria

8. Amba Tree Mangifera indica

9. Ankaranti Herb Solanum xanthocarpum

10. Ankul Tree Alangium lamarckii

11. Aonla Tree Emblica officinalis

12. Arakha Shrub Calotropis procera

13. Arjamapudi Tree

14. Arjuna Tree Terminalia arjuna

15. Asan Tree Terminalia tomentosa

16. Asaruda Herb

17. Ashoka Tree Saraca asoca

18. Aswastha Tree Ficus religiosa

19. Atundi Climber Combretun decandrum

20. Bakula Tree Mimusops elengi

21. Baaunsa(kanta) Grass Bambusa arundinacea

22. Bada limba Tree Azadirachta indica

23. Badhiaala Tree Annona squamosa

24. Bahada Tree Terminalia bellerica

25. Bahadabhadaliya Herb

26. Balikhai Herb

27. Banamali Tree Millingtonia hortensis

28. Banasabati Herb

29. Bara bakula Tree Dalbergia paniculata

30. Bara gachha Tree Ficus bengalensis

Page 53: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

31. Bara koli Tree Zizyphus mauritiana

32. Baruana Tree Crateva relegiosa

33. Basanga Shrub Adhatoda zeylanica

34. Begunia Tree Vitax negundo

35. Bela Tree Aegle marmelos

36. Benta Tree

37. Bhalia Tree Semecarpus anacardium

38. Bhendiya mardana Tree

39. Bherasunga Tree Murraya koengi

40. Bheroo Tree Swetina macrophylla

41. Bhooinimba Herb Andrographis paniculata

42. Bhooinkakharu Climber

43. Bhrungraj Herb Wedelia calendula

44. Bhuinkhajuri Shrub

45. Bhurukundi Tree

46. Brahmi Grass

47. Chaakundi Tree

48. Chaaladhua Tree Enythrina stricta

49. Chakunda Tree Casia siamea

50. Chandan Tree Santalum album

51. Chara Tree Buchanania lanzan

52. Chhatiana Climber Alstonia scholaris

53. Chemani Climber

54. Chirugudia Climber

55. Chitaparu Herb Plumbago zeylanika

56. Dala singa Tree

57. Dhalaabegunia Shrub

58. Dhaman Tree Greura tiliaefolia

59. Dhanitiri Grass

60. Dhariti Grass

61. Dhaura Tree Annogeissus latifolia

62. Duba Ghasa Grass Cynodon dactylon

63. Eucalyptus Tree Eucalyptus spps

64. Gaikiria Climber

65. Gambhari Tree Gmelina arborea

Page 54: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

66. Ganga siuli Tree Nyctanthes arborescens

67. Gandali Tree Sterculia urens

68. Gandha palasa Tree& Climber

69. Gandhana Tree & Shrub

70. Garagarra Shrub

71. Gayasa Herb Leucema leucocephala

72. Gharapudi Herb

73. Gheekuanri Herb Aloe vera

74. Gila Shrub Caesalpinia decapetala

75. Gohira Tree Acacia leucophylaea

76. Gohira Tree Acacia leucophloca

77. Gopa kanhu Climber

78. Guluchi Climber(Orchid) Tinospora cordifolia

79. Haragouri Climber

80. Harida Tree Terminalia chebula

81. Hartal Shrub

82. Hinjal Tree Baringtonia acutangula

83. Harh-Kacha Herb Acanthus ilicifolius

84. Indrajala Shrub Holarrhena antidysentrica

85. Indramaricha Herb

86. Ishwarajata Herb Uraria picta

87. Jada Tree

88. Jaisandha Tree

89. Jajangi Tree

90. Jammu Tree Szygium cumini

91. Jari Tree Ficus retusa

92. Jatajatia Shrub

93. Jhara pana Tree

94. Jharajhampa Tree

95. Jhaun Tree Casuariana equisetifolia

96. Jhumpuri Shrub Streblus taxoides

97. Juahmari Herb

98. Kadamba Tree Anthocephalus cadamba

99. Kaindra Climber Abrus precatorius

100. Kainya Tree Tamarindus indica

Page 55: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

101. Kaitha Tree Limonia acidisima

102. Kala begunia Shrub

103. Kalchua Tree Dispynes sylvatica

104. Kalibeti Creeper Anamirta coculus

105. Kamala gundi Tree Mallotus phillippinensis

106. Kanda Tree

107. Kandu alu Climber Atylosia cajanfolia

108. Kanisiri Grass

109. Kankanamali Tree

110. Kans Tree Hymenodictylon excelsum

111. Kanta koli Tree Flacourita indica

112. Karaba Climber Dioscorea pentaphylla

113. Karanj Tree Pongania pinata

114. Karikantia Shrub

115. Karuda Tree Chlorxdlylon sweitnia

116. Kashatandi Grass Saccharum spontaneum

117. Kasi Tree Bridellia retusa

118. Katakat Tree Pueraria tuberosa

119. Katha menjuati Shrub

120. Keli kadamba Tree

121. Kendu Tree Diospyros metanoxylon

122. Kerandakoli Herb Carissa carandas

123. Kesarqaia Herb

124. Ketaki Tree Ebenacea

125. Khair Tree Acacia catechu

126. Khakada Tree Casearia elliptica

127. Khalua Climber

128. Kharakhari Tree

129. Kharisiju Tree

130. Khira baincha Tree

131. Khira kanchini Herb

132. Khira koli Shrub Carissa spinarum

133. Khunta palasa Climber Butea superba

134. Kiya Shrub Smilax zeylanica

135. Kochila Tree Strychnosnux-vomica

Page 56: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

136. Kota kolia Climber Caaesalpinia bondue

137. Kujala Tree Acacia catechu

138. Kumbhatua Shrub

139. Kumvi Tree Careya arorea

140. Kuradia Shrub

141. Kuruma Tree Adina cardifolia

142. Laajakoli Herb

143. Lal sweta gulubasa Tree

144. Lambaniswar Tree

145. Lankaamba Tree Anacardium occidental

146. Lekhankoli Tree Uvaria hamilton

147. Lembu Shrub

148. Leutia Herb

149. Maankada kendu Tree Dispyrus malabarica

150. Madanamastaka Herb

151. Madanga Herb Loranthus leongiflorus

152. Mahalimba Tree Melia composita

153. Maharadaa Tree

154. Mahula Tree Madhuca latifolia

155. Mai Tree Lannea coromandalica

156. Majurugodia Tree

157. Mandara Tree

158. Manga Tree

159. Masaania Tree

160. Massu Tree

161. Mathura Tree

162. Matikinia Tree Mitragyna parvifloraa

163. Mayurchulia Herb

164. Naatagacha Climber

165. Naraguni Tree Atalantia monophylla

166. Naturi Climber

167. Nila ghasa Grass

168. Olua Herb

169. Paaladhva Tree Erythrina variegata

170. Paatala garuda Herb Rauwolfia serpentina

Page 57: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

171. Paatuli Tree Lagerstroemia reginae

172. Paga siju Shrub

173. Pagaairi Climber

174. Palasa Tree Butea monosperma

175. Panua lai Creeper

176. Pasaruni Creeper Paldinia scandens

177. Pathara giridhini Creeper

178. Phanphania Tree

179. Phasi Tree

180. Phirika Shrub

181. Pimpoli Herb

182. Pita gacha Shrub

183. Pita keruan Tree

184. Pitaalu Climber Dioscorea wallichi

185. Piya seal Tree Pterocarpus marsupium

186. Poichandi Tree

187. Rahana Tree

188. Rakta pitchi

189. Raktachi taparu Herb Plumbago rosea

190. Sadapa Tree

191. Saguan Tree Tectona grandis

192. Sahada Tree Streblus asper

193. Sahaja Tree Terminalia tomentosa

194. Sajana Tree Moringa olefera

195. Sal Tree Shorea robusta

196. Salparni Climber Desmodium gangeticum

197. Sidha Tree

198. Silai Climber Bauhinia vahilii

199. Simuli Tree Salmalia malabarica

200. Sirish Tree Albizzia lebbeck

201. Sishu Tree Dalbergia latifolia

202. Sunari Tree

203. Sweta gulubasa Tree

204. Sweta kaincha Climber Abrus precatorius

205. Sweta kaniari Tree

Page 58: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

206. Sweta kanteikuli Shrub Zigiphus oenoplia

207. Sweta lajukuri Creeper

208. Sweta lal arakha Shrub Calotropis procera

209. Sweta Puruni Creeper

210. Tal Tree Barassus flabelifer

211. Tangini Tree Xyla dolabriformis

212. Thenta kusuma Tree

213. Tinia Tree Albizzia odoratisima

214. Tulasi (kala) Shrub Ocimum basilicum

215. Tulasi (dhala) Climber Ocimum sanctum

216. Tunga Climber

Page 59: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Sl No

Local Name Common English Name Scientific Name

01 Bada Bagha Tiger Panthera tigris tigris

02 Baghahata Leopard cat Felis berigalensis

03 Bhatia (small & big)

04 Barha Indian wild boar Sus scrofa cristatus

05 Bajrakapta Indian pangolin scaly anteater Manis crassicaudats aurita

06 Bada bhalu Sloth bear Melursus ursinus ursinus

07 Bana bhua Jungle cat Felis chaus

08 Gunduchi musa Fine striped palm squirrel Funambulus pennanti

09 Gadhia Striped hyaena Hyaena hyaena hyaena

10 Gayala Indian Bison, Gaur Bos gauras gauras

11 Gurandi Indian Charotain Tragulus meminna

12 Gada bhalu(small) Ratel, Honey badger Mellivora capensis

13 Harina Black buck, Indian antelope Antilope cernicapra

14 Jhinka Indian porcupine Hystrix indica indica

15 Kurunga (kutura) Muntjac, Barking deer, Muntiacus muntjak

16 Karlapaturia bagha Leopard, Panther Panthera pardus

17 Kokisiali Indian fox Vulpes bangalenses

18 Musa Bandicoot rat Bandicoot indica

19 Miriga

20 Nepali neula Common mongoose Herpestes edwardsi

21 Odha Smooth Indian otter Lutra perspicillata

22 Saliapatini Small Indian civet. Viverricula indica

23 Sambar Sambar Cervus unicolor miger

24 Sindhua

25 Thekua Common Indian hare Lepus nigricollis

Page 60: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Annexure-c. iii LIST OF BIRD FAUNA Sl No Local Name Common English Name Scientific Name 01 Bana sua Parrot 02 Bani 03 Baali sua 04 Bana kukuda Red jungle fowl Gallus gallus 05 Baia chatai 06 Baga The common crane Grus grus 07 Bakua suni 08 Bata chapuli 09 Chila Eagle 10 Chanchana 11 Dahuka 12 Damara kau Jungle crow 13 Gobora chadei 14 Gandidigan chadei 15 Huluhula 16 Haladi basanta 17 Hatia guanduri 18 Hunhuha 19 Harada chadei The common green pigeon Treron phoenicopbera 20 Koeli Koel 21 Kajalpati 22 Kua 23 Karakhia 24 Kau 25 Kaunjhara 26 Kochila khai Common grey hornbill Tockus birostris 27 Kanati chadei 28 Kathakata 29 Kopata Spotted dove Streptopelia chinenesis 30 Machha ranka 31 Mayura The common pea fowl Pavo cristatus 32 Panikua 33 Pecha 34 Pandu kapata 35 Para Blue rock pigeon Columba livia 36 Raja bani 37 Saguna Vulture 38 Suna Kapata 39 Tintiya

Page 61: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Local Name Common English Name Scientific Name

1. Ahiraja/Sankhachuda King cobra Ophiophagus hannah

2. Ajagara Indian python cat snake Python molurus, Boiga

3. Andua Common garden lizard Calotes versicolor

4. Boda Indian gamma Trigouata oligodorisp

5. Champa naga

6. Champei neula Mabuya Mabuya ribro

7. Chandra chuda

8. Chitra boda

9. Dhamana

10. Dhanda

11. Jhitipti Bark geco Hemidactylus leschenauli

12. Kalakuta

13. Kanda naliya

14. Kolathia naga

15. Matia boda Rusell’s viper Vipera ruselli

16. Nau dankiya Common green whip snake Dryophisnastus

17. Pathuria Chiti

18. Pohala andua Indian chameleon Chameleon zeycaniene

19. Rana Banded krait Bungarus fasciatus

Page 62: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Annexure-c. v LIST OF INSECTS

Sl No Local name Sl No

Local Name

1. Amba dahani 14. Mankadasa 2. Baghua mahumachi 15. Masa 3. Balijanda 16. Nikiti mahumachi 4. Binchani mahumachi 17. Patanga 5. Budhiani 18. Pimpudi 6. Chandrabali 19. Sadhaba bahu 7. Daunsa 20. Sambari 8. Guda poka 21. Sambula 9. Janda 22. Satapuri mahumachi 10. Jhinkari 23. Teluni kachara 11. Julujula 24. Tentuli bicha 12. Kankada bicha 25. Tinka 13. Machi 26.


No Local Name

1. Chenga 7. Kuchiya

2. Chingudi 8. Magura 3. Dandei 9. Mina 4. Gadissa 10. Pathara kankada 5. Kerandi 11. Sarana 6. Koi 12. Tudin

Page 63: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management

Annexure-c. vi LIST & STATUS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS Local Name Scientific Name Medicinal Value Status Bel Aegle marmelos Constipation Avalible Bhoi Limba Andrographis

panicuta Skin dieases, Worms

Kaincha Abrusprecatorious Constipation Jamu Syzygium cumini Losse motion Sahada

Strebulus Joining of fractured bone

Neema Azadirachta indica Skin diseases Puka Sungha Ageratum

conyzoides Wounds & cuts Decreasing

Lajakoli Mimosa rubicaulis Burns Avalible Sunari Cassia obtusfolia irregular mensuration Kendu Amla Bahada ABBREVIATIONS FD - Forest department NFEC - Non-formal education centre RF ̀ - Reserve forest OFDC - Orissa Forest Development Corporation MFP - Minor forest produce Pvt. - Private Govt. - Government JFM - Joint Forest Management NTFP - Non-timber forest produce VFPC - Village forest protection committee NGO - Non-Government organisation LSE - Landscape element VSS - Van Samrakshan Samiti

Page 64: HHFFDDGGHH••VV (([[SSHHUULLHHQQFFHH RRII ’’KKDDQQLL ... Reports... · Dhani R.F located in Ranpur block of Nayagarh district is an unique case of Community forest management


Landscape Elements Map a. i

Balarampur Habitation Map a. ii

Arjunpur Habitation Map a. iii

Panasapur Habitation Map a. iv

Barapalli Habitation Map a. v

Forest Resource Map a. vi

Identified Landscape Elements b. i

List of Forest Products Collected b. ii

List of Prioritised Wild Species b. iii

List of Plants c. i

List of Animals c. ii

List of Birds c. iii

List of Reptiles c. iv

List of Insects & Fishes c. v List & status of medicinal plants c. vi Pictorial Representation of Institutional Arrangements d. i

Flow Diagram of Forest Fund d. ii