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Not to be copied in any form or distribute
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, GoModel Colony, Pune411016

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Chapter 5 Raw meal
Chapter 6 Pre heating
Chapter 7 Clinkerisation
Chapter 8 Clinker cooling
Chapter 9 Cement grinding
Chapter 10 Cement storage
Chapter 11 Cement despatch
Chapter 12 Cement quality check
Chapter 13 Raw materials
Chapter 14 Cement properties
Book II  Process Calculations of Support Systems
MathCement2000
Introduction
File Name :TOC_friedrich_v8
Topic: Table of Contents
To go to cover page please click here
About using Mathcad Electronic Books
Read me
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:
Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,Model Colony, Pune411016
About MathCement2000
Preface to the first edition
Book I  Process Calculations of Plant Sections
Chapter1
Quarry
Chapter 2 Crushing
Chapter 3 Pre blending
Chapter 4 Raw grinding

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Useful Tables  Earth Sciences
Chapter 3 Useful Tables  Areas and Perimeters
Chapter 4 Useful Tables  Volumes and Surfaces
Book IV  Popups
Chapter 1 Cement Chemistry
Chapter 2 Cement Glossary
Chapter 3 Cement Kiln Types
Chapter 4 Cement Properties
Chapter 5 Cement Quality Tests
Chapter 6 Pressure
Chapter 7 Psychrometry
Chapter 8 General Topics
Chapter 1 Site Conditions
Chapter 2 Dedusting Systems
Chapter 3 Laboratory Investigations
Chapter 4 Fuels and Fuel Systems
Chapter 5 Conveying Systems
Chapter 6 Fans and Blowers
Chapter 7 Rawmix Design
Chapter 8 Plant Water
Chapter 9 Insulation
Book III  Useful Tables "Copyright 1999 by MathSoft, Inc. Reprinted bypermission of MathSoft, Inc."
Chapter 1 Useful Tables  Basic Sciences
Chapter 2

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Book V  Charts and Tables
Chapter 1 Steam Tables
Chapter 2 Humidity Chart
Chapter 3 Separation Degree
Chapter 4 Coal Reactivity
Chapter 5 Conversion Tables
Chapter 6 Fineness
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,Model Colony, Pune411016

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MathCement 2000
Introduction
File Name : Intro_2_v8
Topic: About Using Mathcad Electronic Books
Notes on Navigating and Searching theElectronic Book
To browse through the book, follow the hyperlinks (boldunderlined text) within the files or the b lue arrow buttons onthe Electronic Book toolbar. They will bring you to the next orprevious topic. The Start Page button (house) on the toolbar
brings you back to the main Table of Contents. The Searchbutton (binoculars) opens a searchable word index that willlink to the selected section.
The top left icon in each document will bring you back to thefirst page in that section or from that file to the main Table ofContents.
Changing Equations and Formulasin an Electronic Book
The advantage of a Mathcad Electronic Book is that allequations are live. You can change the values of variables,constants, or other expressions in an Electronic Book to testdifferent results. You can also enter your own equations andaccess any of the commands on menubar.
Copying from an Electronic Book
To copy material from an Electronic Book, just drag yourmouse across the regions until you see a dotted linesurrounding the material you want, then drag those regionsto your main Worksheet window. You can [Shift] [Click] onindividual regions to select or deselect them. Be careful toinclude any necessary variable definitions.
To copy the entire file to your Worksheet window, use theCopy or Save As buttons in the toolbar.

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Saving Annotations in an Electronic Book
You can save your own edits or annotations to the ElectronicBook. If you close the book, your edits will not be saved.
However, checking Annotate Book under the Book menu allowsyou to save some or all annotations. When you close the bookyou will be prompted to save all or some of your changes. Thenext time you open the book, you will see your annotations ingreen. You can always return to the original version of the book.
Units
By default, Mathcad uses units from the SI unit system(International System of Units). Mathcad offers several choices of
unit systems: SI, CGS, MKS, U.S. customary units, or no unitsystem. Results will be displayed in the unit system chosen by theauthor of each Mathcad Electronic Book. Please check the MathcadUser's Guidefor more information on using and converting units inMathcad. If you change unit systems, results will be changed to the newsystem, but any units in the problem or in text regions will remain as the
author entered them.

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We welcome your valuable comments which will help us to continuously improve this booin future.
The book is open to accept limited number of advertisement for future editions. Pleasecontact us for details.
We apologise to any one whose name has not been mentioned by oversight.
We also gratefully acknowledge encouragement and advices given to us by manypeople from the Cement Industry and particularly Mr. P.B.Kulakarni, Mr. M.M.Hirpara ofGujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd., Mr. Sunil S. Potdar of Gammametrics India,Mr.I.C.Ahuja of ACC
We gratefully acknowledge encouragement and support provided to us by seniorofficials in ACC, notably by Dr. A.K.Chatterjee, Mr. T.N.Tiwari, Mr.R.Vasudevan, Mr. R.Sachan, Mr. Umesh Pratap and many others.
We acknowledge references to various books,literature,journals for source materials andsome of them are:Cement Engineers Handbook by Otto Labahn and B.KolhaasCement Data Book by W.H.DudaIndustrielle Waermetechnik by J.StepanekProcess Technology of Cement Manufacturing by VDZ
Mathcad ,Electronic Handbook, Electronic Book are registered trademarks of MathsoftInc., Cambridge, USA.
MathCement 2000 is trademark of Softideas Pvt. Ltd.
This book has an Identification code : MC2000sample1 and should not be copied anddistributed .
MathCement 2000 is an intellectual property, conceptualised, developed and producedby collective efforts of members of Softideas Pvt. Ltd, Pune, India.
All other highlight colours are for special attention
Input variables have yellow highlighted backgroundImportant Colour Codes :
I D: MC2000sample1
Topic: Read me
File Name : Intro_4_v8
Introduction
MathCement 2000

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MathCement 2000
Introduction
File Name : Intro_1_v8
Topic: About MathCement 2000
What is MathCement 2000 ?
Hello! welcome to the world of Mathematics of Cement that'swhat MathCement 2000 all about.It is the first time that such abook, using live math, is presented to the Cement industry.Thefirst edition is being taken out in the year 2000.
This book is a mathematical walk through Mathematics ofCement.The purpose:
To present a ready reconner to the cement engineers fortheir day to day calculations.To remove the drudgery of repeatitive calculations.Freedom from dependency on a computer programmer.To provide ready to ready to use sets of calculations forvarious aspects fo plant design and operations.Justchange the input data to suit your specific problems andyou have the step by step detailed calculations in seconds.
It's self documentingand therefore easy for scrutiny by thirdparty for checking and certification.

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MathCement 2000
Introduction
File Name : Intro_5_v8
Topic: Preface to the First Edition
I D: MC2000sample1
Preface to the First Edition
MathCement 2000 is an intellectual property, conceptualised, developed and producedby collective efforts of members of Softideas Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India. With the advances inTechnology, electronic documentation is becoming more and more popular in manyindustry segments. We in Softideas realised the need for an Electronic Handbook forcement engineers in the plants. Mathcad from Mathsoft Inc. provides an ideal platform forsuch a development specially with its feature of Live Maths.
With Live Maths feature , calculations can be presented using normal mathematicalnotations and programme is generated by Mathcad automatically in the background.
We, at Softideas also realised that the engineers are normally busy with day to dayproduction related problems in the plants, and it is not practical to expect them toresearch and develop such a book. What was needed was that somebody developed itfor them in the final usable form. That's what we have done.
We know that there are plenty of scope for improvement and we expect users feed backto enable us come up with more comprehensive and improved design of this book.
Bahar TepanDirector, Softideas Pvt. Ltd.,
Saumitra PalDirector, Softideas Pvt. Ltd.,
Pune : 1st. August, 2001

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BookI Chapter 1
Quarry Section
File Name : 1_1_quarry
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_1_quarry_1 Quarry Deposit Estimation
1_1_quarry_2 Quarry  Excavator
1_1_quarry_3 Quarry Dumper Calculations

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%CL2 15:=CL2 Limestone component (Gr. 2)
%CL1 70:=CL1 Limestone component (Gr. 1)
(Insert appropriate values to suit your plant condition so that total of allcomponents is 100%)
Raw material components
Step :2
To find deposits required for individual components
TonnesDq 4.752 107
=
Dq L Trd Qd K1:=
Dq Total deposits of Raw material
Calculation
daysTrd 330:=
BookI Chapter 1
Quarry Section
File Name : 1_1_quarry_1
Topic: Quarry Deposit Estimation
Estimation of raw material deposits in terms of no. of years of plant operation.
For a Cement Plant, life cycle is an important cosideration for plant design. It iscustomary to expect the plant to be operative for 30 years or more with maximum designcapacity utilisation for clinker production. Estimation of raw material deposits required,can be done in 2 steps as elaborated below.
Step :1
To find total deposits required for raw material having different components
Qd Plant Capacity in terms of Clinker production Qd 3000:= Tonnes/day
K1 Factor for converting Clinker to Raw meal K1 1.6:=
L Plant life time expected L 30:= Years
Trd Plant running days in a year

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TonnesDqL5 2.376 106
=
DqL5 Dq
CL5
100:=
DqL5 Quarry deposit for Other Component
Other Component (example only  please note you have to use only as manycomponents as applicable for your plant totalling 100% )
TonnesDqL4 2.376 106
=
DqL4
Dq CL4
100:=
DqL4 Quarry deposit for Clay
TonnesDqL3 2.376 106
=
DqL3
Dq CL3
100:=
DqL3 Quarry deposit for Laterite
TonnesDqL2 7.128 106
=
DqL2
Dq CL2
100:=
DqL2 Quarry deposit for Limestone Gr.2
TonnesDqL1 3.326 107
=
DqL1
Dq CL1
100:=
DqL1 Quarry deposit for Limestone Gr.1
Calculation:
%CL5 5:=CL5 Other Component
%CL4 5:=CL4 Clay Component
%CL3 5:=CL3 Laterite Component

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m3Vd 125=
Vd
Hv
Nd:=
VdMaximum capacity of Dumpers
m3Hv 250=
Hv
Qcr Ht
BDLS 60:=
Hv Hopper capacity ( volumetric)
Calculation
Nd 2:=Nd Number of Dumpers
minutesHt 15:=Ht Hopper to hold material equivalentto crusher feed in terms of
minutes
Tonnes/m3BDLS 1.2:=BDLS Bulk density of Stone (limestone)
Tonnes/HrQcr 1200:=Qcr Crusher capacity
To find Dumper volumetric capacity
Step :4 Check availability of Standard capacity Dumper close to thecalculated value
Step :3 Determine maximum Dumper capacity. Feed hopper toreceive minimum 2 Dumper loads
Step :2 Determine feed hopper capacity (volumetric)
Step :1 Determine crusher capacity
Following steps can be followed to estimate the no. of dumpers required and their capacity.
Estimation of Number of Dumpers and Capacity.
Topic: Quarry Dumper Calculations
File Name : 1_1_quarry_3
Quarry Section
BookI Chapter 1

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BookI Chapter 2
Crushing Section
File Name : 1_2_crushing
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_2_crushing_1 Crusher and Auxiliaries Calculations

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K1 1.6:=
CL Total Limestone component as percentageof Raw mix =
CL 85:= %
Tcrw Number of days Crusher runs in a week Tcrw 6:= Days /Wee
Thd Number of hours the crusher system has to run per
day
Thd 12:= Hours/ Day
Ht Hopper to hold material equivalent to crusher
feed in terms of minutes
Ht 15:= minutes
Calculations
Qcr
Crusher capacity
RMw Raw material required per week
RMw Qdk K1 7:=
RMw 5.04 104
= Tonnes/Week
BookI Chapter 2
Crushing Section
File Name : 1_2_crushing_1
Topic: Crusher and Auxiliaries Calculations
Calculation of Crusher Capacity for Raw material (Limestone)
To calculate the capacity of crusher following steps can be followed .
Step : 1 Determine Kiln capacity
Step :2 Determine weekly requirement of crushed Limestone material
Step :3 Determine number of days Crusher has to run per week
Step :4 Determine number of hours the crusher system has to run per day
Qdk Kiln Capacity of Clinker Qdk 4500:= Tonnes /Day
BDLS Bulk density of Stone (limestone) BDLS 1.2:= Tonnes./m
K1 Factor for converting Clinker to Raw meal

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T
HrQcrf 714=
Qcrf K2 Qcr:=
K2 1.2:=Over capacity factor K2
Qcr 595:=Crusher Capacity =Qcr T/Hr
Feeder capacity Qcrf T/Hr.
Capacity of Crusher feeding devices e.g Apron Feeder, Vibrating Screen etcshould have 20 to 30% over capacity.
Feeder for Crusher
m3Hv 123.958=
Hv
Qcr Ht
BDLS 60:=
Hv Crusher Hopper capacity ( volumetric)
Tonnes / HrsQcr 595=
Qcr
LSw
Tcrw Thd:=
Qcr Crusher Capacity required
Tonnes/WeekLSw 4.284 104
=
LSw CL
RMw
100
:=
LSw Limestone required per week

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Feeder capacity Qcrf T/Hr. Qcrf 714=T
Hr
Transportation from crusher
Crusher should be followed by a Plate conveyor or Impact conveyor of shortlength.This may be followed by Weigh Belt Scale to check crusher output.This isfollowed by Belt Conveyor transporting crushed material to the Mix Bed or RawMill Hopper as the case may be.The capacity of these Transport devices should be having 50% over capacity(over crusher capacity) This is in view of flushing from Crusher when a big stone iscrushed resulting in rush of material.
Capacity of Transporting equipment after crusher upto Mix Bed including Stackeris given by Qtcro T/Hr
Qtcro 1.5 Qcr:=
Qtcro 892.5=T
Hr

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BookI Chapter 3
Preblending Section
File Name : 1_3_preblending
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_3_preblending_1 Preblending and Stockpile Equipment Calculations

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CL 85:= %
Qcr Crusher capacity Qcr 565:= Tonnes/ Hr
RMd Number of days of Raw Material stock required RMd 7:=
Calculation
Qsp Stock pile capacity in Tonnes.
RMw Raw material required per week
RMw Qdk K1 7:=
RMw
5.04 104
= Tonnes/Week
LSw Limestone required per week
LSw CL
RMw
100:=
LSw 4.284 104
= Tonnes/Week
BookI Chapter 3
Preblending Section
File Name :
1_3_preblending_1
Topic: Preblending and Stockpile Equipment  Calculations
Calculation of Stockpile Capacity for Raw material (Limestone)
To calculate the capacity of stockpile following steps can be followed.
Step : 1 Determine Kiln capacity
Step : 2 Determine weekly requirement of crushed Limestone material
Qdk Kiln Capacity of Clinker Qdk 4500:= Tonnes /Day
BDLS Bulk density of Stone (limestone) BDLS 1.2:= Tonnes./m3
K1 Factor for converting Clinker to Raw meal K1 1.6:=
CL Total Limestone component as percentage
of Raw mix

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Qsp Stock pile capacity in Tonnes Live Capacity
Qsp Qdk K1
RMd:=
Qsp 5.04 104
= Tonnes
Qstacker Stacker Capacity
Qstacker 1.5 Qcr:=
Qstacker 847.5= Tonnes/Hr
Stacker / Stacker Belt Capacity = Qstacker 847.5= Tonnes/Hr

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Calculation of Ball Mill Percentage Filling as perMeasurement
1_4_rawgrinding_7 Calculation of Grinding Ball Size
1_4_rawgrinding_8 Specific Heat of Raw Material as a Function ofTemperature
1_4_rawgrinding_9 Estimation of grindability based on the operatingparameters of Mill
1_4_rawgrinding_10 Calculation of Mill Output at Different Fineness of Product
1_4_rawgrinding_11 Calculation of Efficiency of Dynamic Air Separator
1_4_rawgrinding_12 Average Piece Weight ofGrinding Media
1_4_rawgrinding_13 Ball Mill Critical Speed and Ball Charge Calculations
1_4_rawgrinding_14 Verical Roller Mill  Calculation of Power
BookI Chapter 4
Raw Grinding Section
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_4_rawgrinding_1 Bond Work Index of the various material based onbond test mill result dry basis
1_4_rawgrinding_2 Calculation of power at Ball Mill shaft for Raw material ,based on the Bond's work index
1_4_rawgrinding_3 Raw Mill and Auxiliary Equipment Capacity Calculations
1_4_rawgrinding_4 Raw Material Drying  Estimation ofTotal Moisture to beEvaporated from Feed
1_4_rawgrinding_5 Raw Mill Heat Balance  Evaluation of Hot GasRequirement for Drying
1_4_rawgrinding_6

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1_4_rawgrinding_15n Radiation Loss in Raw Mill Heat Balance
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resoldProperty of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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kwh/sh.t ( dry basis )Ws 11.261=
kwh/sh.t ( dry basis )Ws44.5
Sc0.23
Pr0.82
10
Pf
10
Ff
:=
Ws Bond index , kwh/sh.t dry basis
Calculation
Pr 1.36:=Pr Finished product per mill revolution , gm / rev
Sc 90:=Sc Screen size , ( Normally 90 size ) ,
Ff 2500:=Ff Feed size to test mill ( 80 % passing  Range 04 mm ) ,
Pf 60:=Pf Product fineness test result ( 80 % Passing  Range > 90 ) ,
The Bond index of various material based on the Dry basis 
Bond test mill result is calculated as given below.
Topic: Bond Work Index of the various material based on bond test mill resultdry basis
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding_1
Raw Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 4

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Mf 8:= %
Mp Total product moisture)surface) Mp 2:= %
Fs Specific heat of raw material Fs 0.21:= kcal/kg.deg.c
Fa False air percentage Fa 10:= %
P Absorbed mill power P 3000:= kw
Eg Amount of dedusting gases Eg 150000:= m3/hr
Egt Dedusting gases temperature Egt 105:= deg.c
Egs Specific heat of dedusting gases Egs 0.31:= kcal/Nm3.deg.c
Ra Surface area for Radiation Losses Ra 185:= m2
Rf Radiation Loss Rf 50:= kcal/m2.deg.cdifference
BookI Chapter 4
Raw Grinding Section
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding_5
Topic: Raw Mill Heat Balance  Evaluation of Hot Gas Requirement for Drying
Hot gases required for drying of material in raw grinding in ball mill
The hot gases required for the drying of the feed moisture in the raw material whilegrinding in close circuit ball mill is calculated as below.
Ght
Hot gases temperature , Ght
280
:=deg.c
Ghs Specific heat of hot gases Ghs 0.34:= kcal/deg.cNm3
Rt Base temperature Rt 20:= deg.c
Amb Ambient air temperature Amb 35:= deg.c
Ambs Specific heat of ambient air Ambs 0.30:= kcal/Nm3.deg.c
Alt Altitude ( From mean sea level ) Alt 950:= m
Fq Fresh feed quantity Fq 100:= tph
Mf Total fresh feed moisture(surface)

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Note :The latent heat of evaporation of water is 540 kcal/kg of water.
Kcal/hrHow 3.978 106
=
Kcal/hrHow W 540 Egt+ Amb( ):=
kg/hrW 6522=
kg/hrWFq 1000 Mf Mp( )
100 Mf:=
Moisture to be evaporated
Step :4 Heat loss to evaporate moisture
Kcal/hrHor 7.862 105
=
Kcal/hrHor Ra Rf Egt Rt( ):=
Step :3 Heat loss due to radiation
Kcal/hrHog 2.855 106
=
Kcal/hrHog Eg Egs Egt Rt( )273
Egt 273+
:=
Step :2 Heat to dedusting gases
Note :The raw material temp. is normally less by 5 deg.c. than the exit gas temperature.
Kcal/hrHop 1.68 106
=
Kcal/hrHop Fq 1000 Fs Egt Rt 5( ):=
Step :1 Heat to raw material
Heat output :
Gh Required hot gas quantity ( Nm3/hr )
RG Circulating air ( Nm3/hr )
Calculations

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Note :If the heat input is less than the heat output then only we require hot gases.
Kcal/hrHi 2.83 106=
Kcal/hrHi Hif Hip+ Hia+:=
Total heat input
Kcal/hrHia 6.75 104=
Kcal/hrHiaEg Fa Ambs Amb Rt( )
100:=
Step :3 Heat from false air
Kcal/hrHip 2.448 106=
Kcal/hrHip
P 816:=
Step :2 Heat from grinding power
Kcal/hrHif 3.15 105=
Kcal/hrHif Fq 1000 Fs Amb Rt( ):=
Step :1 Heat from fresh feed
Heat inputs :
Kcal/hrHo 9.682 106=
Kcal/hrHo Hop Hog+ Hor+ How+ Hoa+:=
Total heat loss
Kcal/hrHoa 3.825 105=
Kcal/hrHoa
Eg Fa Ambs Egt Rt( )
100:=
Step :5 Heat loss to false air

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Nm3/hrGh 77501=
Amount of hot gases required for Drying :
Nm3/hrRG 7745=
Nm3/hrRG if Mg Gh Mg Gh, 0,( ):=
Amount of recirculation gases :
Note "O.K."=
Note if Mg Gh "O.K.", "Change the hot gases temp. or the dedusting gases quantity",( ):=
Nm3/hrGh 77501=
Nm3/hrMg 85246=
Nm3/hrMg Eg273
Egt 273+
1.24 WFa
100Eg
:=
Note :If the dedusting gases quantity is less than the hot gases required then either
increase the hot gases temperature or increase the dedusting gases amount and run theheat balance again.
Nm3/hrGh 77501=
Nm3/hrGh if Hi Ho< Gh, 0,( ):=
Nm3/hrGh 7.75 104=
Nm3/hrGh root Ho Hi Gh Ghs Ght Rt( )+ Gh,:=
Nm3/hrGh 0:=
Let us solve for hot gases requirement.

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radians 6.283=
radians 2acosH r
r
:=
Percentage filling :
mr 2=
mrDi
2:=
r Radius inside lining
F Percentage filling of grinding media
Calculations
h
H
r
Di
a
C.Gof Charge
h
H
r
Di
a
C.Gof Charge
mH 0:=H Empty measured height
mDi 4:=Di Mill inside diameter
To calculate the percentage of grinding media filling in the ball millbased on the empty measured height is as below.
Topic: Calculation of Ball Mill Percentage Filling as per Measurement
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding_6r1
Raw Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 4

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F
1
2r2 r H r( ) sin
2
100
r2
:=
F 100= %
Notes :
The filling ratio for close circuit ball mill is in the range of 2632 %The filling ratio for open circuit ball mill is in the range of 2632 %For single chamber ball mill the filling ratio is in the range of 2428 %

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Cf 2.2=
Cf100
Ef
Pb
Fb:=
Circulation factor :
%Ef 57.1=
%Ef
Pb
Fb
Fb Cb
Pb Cb
100:=
Separator efficiency :
Cf Circulation Factor
Ef Separator Efficiency in %
Calculations :
%Cb 55:=Cb Separator coarse passing
%Pb 88:=Pb Separator product passing
%percent materialbelow cut size
Fb 70:=Fb Separator feed passing
micronsS 90:=S Partical cut off size
Calculation method of separator circulation factor and the separator efficiency based onthe percentage passing of feed, product and coarse at a perticular partical cut offsize areas given below.
Topic: Calculation of Efficiency of Dynamic Air Separator
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding_11
Raw Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 4

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GIIiGrinding media loading , ton
BIiBall size , mm
SISpecific surface , m2/ton
GIIj
23.9
27.1
32.3
20.8
0
:=BIIj
60
50
40
30
25
:=WIAverage peice weight , gm/peice
j 0 4..:=
Chamber  II
GIiGrinding media loading , ton
BIiBall size , mm
SISpecific surface , m2/ton
GIi
32.5
29.0
26.5
23.9
16.4
0
0
0
:=BIi
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
:=WIAverage peice weight , gm/peice
i 0 7..:=
Chamber  I
The average peice weight of the grinding media is calculated as givenbelow.
Topic: Average Piece Weight ofGrinding Media
File Name : 1_4_rawgrinding_12
Raw Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 4

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Calculations
Peice weight of each ball : Surface area of each ball :
m2WIi
2 BI
1000
3
12
7.8 1000:= kg/peice SIi
2 BI
1000
2
8
:=
kg/peice m2
WIi
4.084
2.977
2.091
1.401
0.882
0.511
0.261
0.11
= SIi
7.854 103
6.362 103
5.027 103
3.848 103
2.827 10 3
1.963 103
1.257 103
7.069 104
=

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BookI Chapter 5
Raw Meal Section
File Name : 1_5_rawmeal
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_5_rawmeal_1 Calculation of Blending &Storage Silos and AuxiliaryEquipmentCapacity for Rawmeal Preparation
1_5_rawmeal_2 Calculation of Kiln Feed Rawmeal Systems
1_5_rawmeal_3n Calculation of Kiln Feed Rawmeal Quantity
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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BookI Chapter 6
Preheating Section
File Name : 1_6_preheating
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
No files here currently

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1_7_clinkerisation_8n Kiln Capacity check
1_7_clinkerisation_9n Degree of Decarbonation of Raw Meal Definition
1_7_clinkerisation_10n Degree of Decarbonation of Raw Meal Calculation onOperating Data
1_7_clinkerisation_11n Reaction Enthalpy Decarbonation and Clinkerisation
1_7_clinkerisation_12n Theoretical Heat of Clinker Formation  Calculation
1_7_clinkerisation_13n Calculation of Kiln Weight under Operating Conditions
1_7_clinkerisation_14n Calculation of Kiln Torque under Operating Conditions
1_7_clinkerisation_15n Calculation for Kiln Hydraulic Thruster
1_7_clinkerisation_16n Kiln Hydraulic Thruster  A Note
1_7_clinkerisation_17n Kiln Drive Specification
BookI Chapter 7
Clinkerisation Section
File Name :
1_7_clinkerisation
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_7_clinkerisation_1 Calculation of Kiln and Auxiliary Equipment Capacities
1_7_clinkerisation_2 Leakages Through Kiln Air Seal
1_7_clinkerisation_3 Calculation of Specific Heats of Clinker as a Function ofClinker Temperature
1_7_clinkerisation_4 Kiln Retention Time and Related Parameters
1_7_clinkerisation_5 Kiln Sinter Zone Cooling Fans
1_7_clinkerisation_6 Kiln Nose Ring Cooling Fans
1_7_clinkerisation_7n Kiln Tyre / Shell Ovality

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1_7_clinkerisation_18n Calculation of expansion of Kiln in hot condition
Calculation of Temerature Profile of Kiln Shell in hotcondition
1_7_clinkerisation_19n
1_7_clinkerisation_20n Calcination Function
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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mY 4.395:=Y Measured min. diameter
mX 4.405:=X Measured max. diameter
mD 4.4:=D Diameter of Tyre
Percentage ovality calculation
Oval shape is in Redhaving Major Dia.=Xand Minor Dia. = Y
Perfect Circle is inBlack of Dia.= D
DY
X
Ovality of Kiln shell beyond acceptable limit can effect life of Refractory lining in theKiln.Kiln shell gets rigidity only after a tyre has been mounted. However, in case of loosetyre there exists a gap between the shell and the tyre at the top of the shell.The ovality ofthe shell , therefore cannot be guaranteed.But it is important to machine the tyres
accurately with maximum ovality inside not to exceed 0.2%
Calculation for ovality of Kiln Tyres / Shells
Topic: Kiln Tyre / Shell Ovality
File Name : 1_7_clinkerisation_7n
Clinkerisation Section
BookI Chapter 7

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OP Percentage Ovality of Tyre ( % )
OPX Y
D
100:= %
%OP 0.227=
Tyre ovality should be practically zero when machined and maximum 0.2% on load(after erection)
During operation at a specific temperature the shell expand and fit exactly into theTyre and in such a state the shell ovality is then max 0.2% i.e same as that of tyre onload.
If the ovalityof shell, specially under the tyre section is in the range of 0.4 to0.5%,then the refractory life is adversely affected.
In the manufacturing workshop the Kiln shell ovality should be measured after fixingthe spider rings. Otherwise the shell becomes oval under its own weight.
If the ovality of fabricated shells show an ovality of more than 0.2% even with thespiders mounted, it will be difficult to align the shells during erection prior to weldingof the shells at site.This is an important considerationwhy ovality of Kiln shells alsoshould be kept atminimum possible value.

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BookI Chapter 7
Clinkerisation Section
File Name : 1_7_clinkerisation_8n
Topic: Kiln Capacity check
Calculation of capacity and loads for a given size of Kiln
QK Kiln Capacity evaluation ( T/Day )
Burner
D meters Inside shell Dia.
d meters Inside refrectory Dia.
D Inside ( shell ) diameter of the kiln D 4.8:= m
W Refractory thickness W 200:= mm

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k.cal /m2.hrKTL
3.946 106
=
k.cal /m2.hrKTLK
d
2
4
:=
d 4.4=
md D 2W
1000:=
d Kiln diameter on refractory ( m )
k.cal. / hr.K 60 106
:=K Heat input to Kiln
Kiln thermal load is calculated based on total heat input to kiln on open cross sectionalarea.This should normally not exceed. 4.5 million k.cal. /m2/hr.but can go upto 6.0
million k.cal. /m2/hr.
KTL Kiln Thermal Load ( k.cal /m2.hr.)
RLD 14.583=
RLDL
D:=
RLD Kiln L / D ratio
Calculations :
% 3:= Kiln slope ( Range 3.04.0 )
deg. 35:= Angle of repose ( Clinker 35 deg. )
rpmN 3.5:=N Kiln speed
mL 70:=L Overall length of the kiln

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t / day /m3QSP 4.607=
t / day /m3QSP QTH
Vi:=
QSP Specific output of kiln ( t / day /m3)
QTH 4.903 103=
t / day
t / dayQTH F1 D3.283 L
0.33:=
F1 7:=Output factor =F1 is a function of the type of kilnFor normal preheater kiln F1 = 3.0
For precalciner kiln F1 is 7 to 7.5
QTH Theoretical output of Kiln ( t/ day of clinker )
Vi 1.064 103
=m3
m3Vi
d2
4L:=
Vi Kiln volume on refractory (internal volume)( m3)

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BookI Chapter 7
Clinkerisation Section
File Name : 1_7_clinkerisation_15n
Topic: Calculation for Kiln Hydraulic Thruster
For calculation of operating thrust of Kiln it is necessary to first determine the totaloperating weight of the kiln . Please refer to file no. 1_7_clinkerisation_13
For a more detailed note on Hydraulic Thruster please refer to file 1_7_clinkerisation_16
KILNF
TH
WK
TYRE
THRUST ROLLER
C.L of KILN
KILNSECTION
WK Total operating weight of Kiln WK 868:= MT
o Let the slope of Kiln be 2:=

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It should be noted that the Thrust Roller on the upper side of the Tyre is to act only asstopper to prevent the kiln from riding out of the roller during its upward movement.
90.0
63.0
45.0
31.5
17.5 MT
Std. hyd. unit
Thrust rollers are fitted with standard hydraulic thrusting devices of standard ratings.A typical range is shown below
Normally Thrust Rollers are provided on Pier No. 1 only.However , it is possible toprovide two sets of Thrust Rollers in 1st. and 2nd. piers. Insuch a case the load isshared equally by each roller.
MTFTH 30.293=
MTFTH WK cos90
180
:=
FTH The thrust applied by kiln on its downhill movement due to the slope ( MT )
radian1 0.035=
180 0.035=1
180 :=
To convert slope from degree to radian = 1

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S1 represents length upto end of first first section of kiln and S2 upto end of secondsection of kiln and so on
S represents length of cummulative sections of kiln
ALT
n:=L
i
LT
n:=i 1 n
..:=n 10
:=L
T70
:=
The shell temperatures for the sections are either measured or taken from experience
The kiln is theoretically divided into n equal section  normally 10 sections and isdenoted by A
Where L is kiln lengthLT L=At designed ambient temp.
Let total length of kiln at cold condition be LT m
L1
L2
L3
L
KILN
Support  1 Support  2Support 3
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10
Calculation of expansion of Kiln in hot condition
Topic: Calculation of expansion of Kiln in hot condition
File Name : 1_7_clinkerisation_18n
Clinkerisation Section
BookI Chapter 7

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S0 0:=
Si Li Si 1+:=
L
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
= S
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70
=T
205
210
230
250
280
310
310
310
290
270
250
:=
ta 0:= ambient tempco eff. of linear expan = 0.01215 per deg. C
Ei 0.01215 Ti 1 ta( ):=
DX represents expansion of kilnsectionsE
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
67
8
9
10
0
2.491
2.551
2.794
3.037
3.402
3.7663.766
3.766
3.523
3.28
=
DXi Li Ei:= E1 2.491=
L1 13:= L2 38:= L3 58:=

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0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70200
250
300
350
Kiln Shell Temp. Profile
Shell length from feed end  m
ShelltemperatureDeg.C
Ti
Si
DX10 22.963=Expansion of sec. 10DX5 23.814=Expansion of sec. 5
DX9 24.665=Expansion of sec. 9DX4 21.262=Expansion of sec. 4
DX8 26.365=Expansion of sec. 8DX3 19.561=Expansion of sec. 3
DX7 26.365=Expansion of sec. 7DX2 17.86=Expansion of sec. 2
DX6 26.365=Expansion of sec. 6DX1 17.435=Expansion of sec. 1
Expansion of each section is given by DXi in mm
The shell is equally divided into n equal sections (n is fixed at n =10 )
DX
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
17.435
17.86
19.561
21.262
23.814
26.365
26.365
26.365
24.665
22.963
=

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L1
L2
L3
L
KILN
Support  1 Support  2Support 3
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7015
20
25
30
Kiln Shell Expansion at each section
Shell lengths from feed end m
Expansionmm
DXi
Si

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DXL2 110.14=
DXL2 if SS2( ) 5> DXL23, if SS1 4= DXL21, DXL22,( ),:=
DXL23
DX1
DX2+
DX3+
DX4+
DX5+
DX6+
ESS2
ML2+:=
DXL22 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ DX4+ DX5+ ESS2 ML2+:=
DXL21 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ DX4+ ESS2 ML2+:=
ML2 3=ML2 mod L2 A,( ):=
SS2 5=SS2 truncL2
A
:=
L2Full Shell sections upto
DXL1 32.38=
DXL1 if SS1( ) 2> DXL13, if SS1 1= DXL11, DXL12,( ),:=
DXL13 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ ESS1 ML1+:=
DXL12 DX1 DX2+ ESS1 ML1+:=
DXL11 DX1 ESS1 ML1+:=
ESS1 ML1 14.944=ML1 6=ML1 mod L1 A,( ):=
ESS1 2.491=SS1 1=SS1 trunc
L1
A
:=
A 7=
L1Full Shell sections upto

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DXL 226.658=DXL2 110.14=
DXL3 211.228=DXL1 32.38=
mmDXL 226.658=
DXL DX:=
DXL3 211.228=
DXL3 if SS3( ) 9> DXL33, if SS3 7= DXL31, DXL32,( ),:=
DXL33 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ DX4+ DX5+ DX6+ DX7+ DX8+ DX9+ DX10+ ESS3 ML3+:=
DXL32 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ DX4+ DX5+ DX6+ DX7+ DX8+ DX9+ ESS3 ML3+:=
DXL31 DX1 DX2+ DX3+ DX4+ DX5+ DX6+ DX7+ DX8+ ESS3 ML3+:=
DXL2 110.14=ML3 2=ML3 mod L3 A,( ):=
SS3 8=SS3 trunc
L3
A
:=
L3Full Shell sections upto

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Calculation of Grate Cooler Offset from Kiln axis1_8_clinkercooling_5n
Calculation of Grate Cooler Recuperation Efficiency T.A.Duct Tapping from Kiln Hood
1_8_clinkercooling_4
Calculation of Grate Cooler Recuperation Efficiency T.A.Duct Tapping from Cooler
1_8_clinkercooling_3
Calculation of GrateCooler Drive Power1_8_clinkercooling_2
Calculation of Clinker Transport Equipment Capacity andClinker Stockpile
1_8_clinkercooling_1
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
File Name :
1_8_clinkercooling
Clinker Cooling Section
BookI Chapter 8

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mm
N Max. grate speed ( Shaft speed , rpm ) N 22:= strokes/min
Calculations
F Cooler grate total drive force (Kilo Newton)
F Ga Df:= KN
KNF 345=
T Torque at ecenctric shaft (KN.m )
T FSl
2 1000:= KN.m
T 20.7
=KN.m
This torque has to be transmitted by Chain wheel
N Maximum RPM of driven sprocket ( strokes per minute )
Shaft power :
BookI Chapter 8
Clinker Cooling Section
File Name :
1_8_clinkercooling_2
Topic: Calculation of Grate Cooler Drive Power
Grate cooler motor power calculation :
The grate motor power is calculated as below. See Sketch alongside
Pm
Grate motor power Pm
kw
Ga Grate area Ga 30:= m2
Df Specific cooler grate drive force Df 11.5:= KN/m2
Sl Stroke length Sl 120:=

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Ps2 N T
60:= KW
Ps 47.689= KW
Grate motor power :
Pm 1.4 Ps:= KW
Pm 67= KW
Similarly calculate for all grates individually

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F
Eccentric
o
Eccentric Drive
Gearbox output
s1/2
F
Eccentric
o
Eccentric Drive
Gearbox output
s1/2

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Expected Power Draw of Cement Mill as a Function ofSpeed
1_9_cementgrinding_12n
Cement Mill Grinding Performance as a Function ofSurface Generated
1_9_cementgrinding_11n
Mill Radiation Loss1_9_cementgrinding_10n
Cement Mill Cooling Air1_9_cementgrinding_9n
Cement Mill Output at Different Finenesses1_9_cementgrinding_8n
Sizing of Close Circuit Cement Mill1_9_cementgrinding_7n
Calculation of Water Spray in the Mill for Cooling1_9_cementgrinding_6
Estimation of grindability of Clinker based on the operatiparameters
1_9_cementgrinding_5
Calculation of Cement Mill Output as a function ofGrinding Media Load
1_9_cementgrinding_4
Cement Mill Heat Balance and Calculation of Hot Gas fDrying
1_9_cementgrinding_3
Calculation of Cement Grindability based on Ziesel Valu1_9_cementgrinding_2
Calculation of Cement Mill and Auxiliary Equipment1_9_cementgrinding_1
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
File Name :
1_9_cementgrinding
Cement Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 9

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N 12:= rpm
F Percentage filling F 28:= %
G Grindability , Kwh/ton at 3000 blaine G 30:=
Kf K factor Kf 9.55:=
Calculations
The blaine correction factor :
Bf e
Pf 3000( )1000
0.49
:=
Bf 1.103=
The grindability at the required product fineness :
Gf G Bf:= Kwh/t .
Kwh/tGf 33.089=
BookI Chapter 9
Cement Grinding Section
File Name : 1_9_cementgrinding_4
Topic: Calculation of Cement Mill Output as a function of Grinding Media Load
Production of the ball mill  Clinker grinding based on Grinding media loading
The theoretical production based on the grindability of the clinker is as givenbelow.
Pr
Production Pr
tph
Pf Product fineness Pf 3200:= blaine
Di Ball mill inside diameter Di 4:= m
L Ball mill effective length ( I + II Chamber ) L 14:= m
N Ball mill speed

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The grinding media :
Gm Di
2 L 4.5 F
4 100:= ton
Gm 221.671= ton
The available mill shaft power :
PGm Kf Di( )
1.36:= kw
P 3113= kw
The production based on the grindability :
PrP
Gf:= tph
Pr 94= tph

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tphCapnew 132=
Capnew roundCap
k0,
:=
k 0.907=
k 10
B2 B11000
0.213:=
Correction factor = k
Capnew To find what would be new capacity of mill ( tph )
Calculations :
cm2 /gmB2 2800:=B2 Desired fineness of cement acc. to Blaine
cm2 /gmB1 3000:=B1 Present fineness of cement acc. to Blaine
tphCap 120
:=Cap Present Mill output
For an operating mill capacity at a certain fineness is known . Following calculationmethod predicts expected outputs at other desired finenesses.
Calculation of Mill output at other finenesses
Topic: Cement Mill Output at Different Finenesses
File Name : 1_9_cementgrinding_8n
Cement Grinding Section
BookI Chapter 9

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BookI Chapter 10
Cement Storage Section
File Name :
1_10_cementstorage
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
1_10_cementstorage_1 Calculation of Cement Transport and Silo and Auxiliar Equipment
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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Qsilo
Td Qcm Th( )
VBDc:=
Qsilo Silo capacity
Calculation
Tonnes/m3VBDc
1.2
:=VBD
cBulk density of cement for volume
HrsTh 16:=Th Mill running hours per day
daysTd 8:=Td Capacity in terms of number of days stock
To find capacity of Cement silo
Step : 2
Tonnes / Hr.Qtr2 144=
BookI Chapter 10
Cement Storage Section
File Name : 1_10_cementstorage_1
Topic: Calculation of Cement Transport and Silo and Auxiliary Equipment
Many times cement production can be enhanced by grinding coarser than originallycontemplated or by adding Pozzolanic material. Hence it is of great importance toforesee such possibilities at design stage and design the capacities for maximumanticipated capacity of the Mill
Step : 1
To find the capacity of conveyor from Vibrating screen located at discharge of Cementmill
Transportation of cement from the mill after Vibrating Screen etc.should be designedfor 20 % over capacity w.r.t. mill capacity.
Qcm Max Capacity of Cement Mill Qcm 120:= Tonnes/ hr
Fod Over design factor Fod 1.2:=
Calculation
Qtr2 Conveyor capacity
Qtr2 Fod Qcm:=

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Qsilo 12800= m3
Step : 3
To find capacity of Silo Discharge Apparatus
Qp Demand of Packing m/c per hour Qp 100:= Tonnes/Hr
Over design factor (100 %) Fod 2:=
Calculation
Qd Silo Discharge Apparatus Tonnes/Hr
Qd Fod Qp:=
Qd 200= T/Hr
Note  There should be always a standby discharge apparatus

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BookI Chapter 11
Cement Despatch Section
File Name :
1_11_cmtdespatch
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
Currently no files here

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Kiln Dust Loss in Terms of Kiln Feed Raw MealandApparant Degree of Calcination
1_12_quality_11n
To Calculate Quantity of CaO Required to Attain SpecificValue of Total Carbonate Content in Kiln Feed Raw Meal
1_12_quality_10n
1_12_quality_9nTotal Carbonate Content in Kiln Feed Raw MealCalculation
1_12_quality_8nPercentage Liquid and Burnability Index Cement Clinker Calculation
Complex Compounds of Cement Clinker  Calculation byBogue's Formulae
1_12_quality_7n
Burnability Factor of Kiln Feed Raw Meal  Calculation1_12_quality_6n
Hydraulic Ratio of Kiln Feed Raw Meal  Calculation1_12_quality_5n
Lime Saturation Factor Calculation1_12_quality_4n
Alumina Ratio and Requirement of Components1_12_quality_3n
Silica Ratio and Requirement of Components1_12_quality_2n
Loss on Ignition of Kiln Feed Raw Meal1_12_quality_1n
Topic: Expanded Table Of Quality Checks
File Name : 1_12_quality_n
Quality Checks
BookI Chapter 12

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LSFPWCaO
2.8 PWSiO2 1.65 PWAl2O3+ 0.35 PWFe2O3+:=
To find Lime Saturation Factor ( LSF ) When > 0.64
Condition 1:
Check if the figure ARRM is > 0.64
ARRM 1.849=
ARRM
PWAl2O3
PWFe2O3:=
ARRM Alumina Ratio of Raw Meal
Calculation
%PWSiO2 22.3:=PWSiO2 Percentage of SiO2 in Kiln feed raw meal
%PWCaO 66.01:=PWCaO Percentage of CaO in Kiln feed raw meal
%PWAl2O3 5.4:=PWAl2O3 Percentage of Al2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal
%PWFe2O3
2.92
:=PW
Fe2O3Percentage of Fe2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal
Analysis on Loss Free Basis
Calculation of Lime Saturation Factor of Kiln feed raw meal ( LSF )
Topic: Lime Saturation Factor  Calculation
File Name : 1_12_quality_4n
Quality Checks
BookI Chapter 12

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Condition 2 :
To find Lime Saturation Factor = LSF When < 0.64
LSFPWCaO
2.8 PWSiO2 1.1 PWAl2O3+ 0.7 PWFe2O3+:=
By using if statement we can evaluate LSF
LSF if ARRM 0.64>PWCaO
2.8 PWSiO2 1.65 PWAl2O3+0.35 PWFe2O3+
...,
PWCaO
2.8 PWSiO21.1 PWAl2O3+
...
0.7 PWFe2O3+
...,
:=
LSF 0.912=

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PWMgO Percentage of MgO in Kiln feed raw meal PWMgO 1.365:= %
PWAlkalies Percentage of Alkalies in Kiln feed raw meal PWAlkalies 0.413:= %
PWSO3 Percentage of SO3 in Kiln feed raw meal PWSO3 0.338:= %
LOI Loss On Ignition LOI 35:= %
Calculation
TC Total Carbonate (Calculated from Analysis on Raw Basis)
TC 1.784 PWCaO 2.09 PWMgO+:=
TC 79.399= %
Note if the analysis is given in Loss Free Basis then multiply by conversion factor
=FLFtoR
FLFtoR100 LOI
100:=
BookI Chapter 12
Quality Checks
File Name : 1_12_quality_9n
Topic: Total Carbonate Content in Kiln Feed Raw Meal Calculation
Calculation of Total Carbonate Content in Kiln Feed Raw Meal
Analysis of Kiln Feed Raw Meal on Raw Basis
PWFe2O3 Percentage of Fe2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal PWFe2O3 1.898:= %
PWAl2O3 Percentage of Al2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal PWAl2O3 3.51:= %
PWCaO Percentage of CaO in Kiln feed raw meal PWCaO 42.907:= %
PWSiO2 Percentage of SiO2 in Kiln feed raw meal PWSiO2 14.495:= %

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Conditional Calculation
Let us define Analysis Basis as = BASIS
If analysis is on Raw Basis then
If analysis is on Loss Free Basis then
Define BASIS
BASIS 1:=
TC if BASIS 0> 1.784 PWCaO 2.09 PWMgO+( ), FLFtoR 1.784 PWCaO2.09 PWMgO+
...
,
:=
TC 79.399=

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BookI Chapter 13
Raw Materials
File Name :
1_13_rawmaterials_n
Topic: Expanded Table Of Raw Materials
1_13_rawmaterials_1n Raw Materials for Cement Production
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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The final clinker is the product after combustion, during which process, the rawmaterials lose gaseous components . Thus the resultant balance material analysis isreported without possibility of any further loss. This report is termed as loss freebasis.By predicting the anticipated losses , it is possible to report the analysis of rawmaterial s in Loss Free Basis.
Raw materials as analysed in Laboratory are reported as Raw Basis
Tetracalcium alumino ferrite is represented by C4AF
Tricalcium aluminate is represented by C3A
Dicalcium silicate is represented by C2S
Tricalciun silicate is represented by C3S
Complex compounds of Cement are represented by :
Rest components represented by R
Fe2O3 represented by F
Al2O3 represented by A
SiO2 represented by S
CaO represented by C
The principle oxides that constitute cement clinker are:
Alumina : principal source of Al2O3
Laterite : principal source of Fe2O3
Sand stone : principal source of SiO2
Clay : principal source of SiO2
Lime stone : principal source of CaCO3 and hence CaO
Principle Raw Materials :
Variable Definitions for Raw materials section
Topic: Raw Materials for Cement Production
File Name : 1_13_rawmaterials_1n
Raw Materials
BookI Chapter 13

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F2 F3 FASH
And So On
LOI[ ] LOI1 LOI2 LOI3 LOIASH
When the total of all components including LOI is 100% then the analysis is reported inRaw Basis
When the total of all components excluding LOI is 100% then the analysis is reported inLoss Free Basis.
To convert from one basis to another following steps can be followed
Step : 1 To convert to Loss Free Basis from Raw Basis
OI
OR
100 LOI100:=
OR%
Or
LetFRtoLF
100
100 LOI:=
LOI
Then
O1 FRtoLF OR:= FRtoLF
OI represents percentage oxide value in Loss Free Basis
OR represents percentage oxide value in Raw Basis
Since the Raw meal is a mix of two or more raw materials, the analysis is indexed toindicate the belongingness of particular values as follows.
raw material 1 raw material 2 raw material 3 Ash
CaO[ ] C1 C2 C3 CASH
SiO2[ ] S1 S2 S3 SASH
Al2 O3[ ] A1 A2 A3 AASH
Fe2 O3[ ] F1

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%
C Percentage of CaO in Kiln feed raw meal C 66.01:= %
S Percentage of SiO2 in Kiln feed raw meal S 22.3:= %
MGO Percentage of MgO in Kiln feed raw meal MGO 2.1:= %
AL Percentage of Alkalies in Kiln feed raw meal AL 0.635:= %
REST Percentage of Rest oxides in Kiln feed raw meal REST 3.2:= %
LOI Percentage of Loss On Ignition in Kiln feed raw meal LOI 35:= %
FLFtoR100 LOI
100:=
LOI represents percentage lOSS ON IGNITION in Raw Basis
FRtoLF is common factor for conversion fron Raw To Loss Free basis
Step : 2 To convert from Loss Free Basis to Raw Basis
OR100 LOI( ) OI
100:=
LOI%
Or
Let
FLFtoR100 LOI
100:=
LOI
Then
OR FLFtoR OI:= FLFtoR
OI represents percentage oxide value in Loss Free Basis
OR represents percentage oxide value in Raw Basis
LOI represents percentage lOSS ON IGNITION in Raw Basis
FLFtoR is common factor for conversion fron Raw To Loss Free basis
Analysis on Loss Free Basis
F Percentage of Fe2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal F 2.92:= %
A Percentage of Al2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal A 5.4:=

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RESTR Percentage of Rest oxides in Kiln feed raw meal RESTR FLFtoR REST:= %
FR FLFtoR F:= FR 1.898=
AR 3.51=AR FLFtoR A:=
CR FLFtoR C:= CR 42.907=
SR FLFtoR S:= SR 14.495=
MGOR FLFtoR MGO:= MGOR 1.365=
ALR FLFtoR AL:= ALR 0.413=
RESTR FLFtoR REST:= RESTR 2.08=
LOI Percentage of Loss On Ignition in Kiln feed raw meal LOI 35:= %
FLFtoR 0.65=
Analysis on Raw Basis
FR Percentage of Fe2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal FR FLFtoR F:= %
AR Percentage of Al2O3 in Kiln feed raw meal AR FLFtoR A:= %
CR Percentage of CaO in Kiln feed raw meal CR FLFtoR C:= %
SR Percentage of SiO2 in Kiln feed raw meal SR FLFtoR S:= %
MGOR Percentage of MgO in Kiln feed raw meal MGOR FLFtoR MGO:= %
ALR Percentage of Alkalies in Kiln feed raw meal ALR FLFtoR AL:= %

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BookI Chapter 14
Cement
File Name : 1_14_cement_n
Topic: Expanded Table Of Cement
1_14_cement_1n Evaluation of combined water in cement
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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Corresponds to coefficients when cement is hydratedfor 13 year
a13 data2 :=
a6.5 data1 :=
Corresponds to coefficients when cement is hydratedfor 6.5 year
Corresponds to coefficients when cement is hydratedfor 1 year
a1 data0 :=
data0 1 2
0
1
0.23 0.23 0.23
0.17 0.18 0.2
:=
Co efficients are given by the following table ( acc. to Kantro and Copeland)
r a1 C3 S[ ] a2 C2 S[ ]+ a3 C3 A[ ]+ a4 C4 A F[ ]+=
let us call this ratio = r so that
WC
Ca1 C3 S[ ] a2 C2 S[ ]+ a3 C3 A[ ]+ a4 C4 A F[ ]+=
then WC/ C ratio is given by the following formula
Let the quantity of cement be C gms
Let combined water in set and hardened cement be WC gm
Water that is held in the pores of the solid paste is free water or capillary water.
The water that is held at the surface of the cement by surface tensionof gelparticles is called adsorbed water or gel water.
After hydration of cement water that is chemically combined with the compoundsand form part of the solid is called combined water.There also exists adsorbedwater and free water .
Topic: Evaluation of Combined Water in Cement
File Name :
1_14_cement_1n
Cement
BookI Chapter 14

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WC 2.479 gm=
WC r C:=
C 10gm:=Let quantity of cement be
This would mean that after 13 years, the cement has combined water of 24.789 %of its weight .
a3 0.109=r 24.789 %=
a2 0.522=a
0.23
0.196
0.522
0.109
= a10.196=r
0.248=a0 0.23=
r a0
C3 S[ ]
100 a1
C2 S[ ]
100+ a2
C3 A[ ]
100+ a3
C4 A F[ ]
100+:=
a if t 1= a1, if t 13= a13, a6.5,( ),( ):=
C4 A F[ ] 9:=i 0 3..:=
C3 A[ ] 13:=
C2 S[ ] 27:=
C3 S[ ] 51:=and let cement constituents be in %
t 13:=let the time period of hydration be = t yearsValid for t equal to 1,6.5 and 13 only
a13
0.23
0.196
0.522
0.109
=a6.5
0.234
0.178
0.504
0.158
=a1
0.228
0.168
0.429
0.132
=

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BookII Chapter 1
Plant Site Condition
File Name :
2_1_sitecondition
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
2_1_sitecondition_1 The Barometric pressure at site based on the altitudeand temperautre.
Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016

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Bp 635=mm of Hg
mm of HgBp
P273
273 Amb+
:=
Barametric pressure at ambient temperature
P 716=mm of Hg
mm of HgP760
Ef:=
Site pressure at zero deg.c. temperature
Ef 1.061=
Ef1
1 0.0065Alt
288
5.255:=
Elevation factor
Calculations:
deg.cAmb 35:=Amb Ambient temperature
mAlt 500:=Alt Altitude ( Above mean sea level )
mm of HgBpBp Barometric pressure
The Baraometric pressure based on the altitude of the site and the ambient temperature iscalculated as given below.
Topic: The Barometric pressure at site based on the altitude and temperautre.
File Name :
2_1_sitecondition_1
Plant Site Condition
BookII Chapter 1

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Chimney Design2_2_dedusting_13n
Electrostatic Precipitator To calculate Migration Velocity2_2_dedusting_12n
Electrostatic Precipitator Performance Evaluation2_2_dedusting_11n
Electrostatic Precipitator Specific Collection Area2_2_dedusting_10n
Electrostatic Precipitator Deutsch Efficiency Formula2_2_dedusting_9n
Sizing of Gas Conditioning Tower2_2_dedusting_8n
GCT and ESP Calculation of Gas Volume2_2_dedusting_7
Glass Bag House Calculation of Gas Volume as Functioof temperature.
BookII Chapter 2
Dedusting Systems
File Name : 2_2_dedusting
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
2_2_dedusting_1 Estimation of Vent Air Volume
2_2_dedusting_2_1r K Factors
2_2_dedusting_3 Calculation of Pressure Losses in Ductings
2_2_dedusting_4 Design Parameters for Design of Duct Systems
2_2_dedusting_5 Duct Balancing
2_2_dedusting_6

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BookII Chapter 2
Dedusting Systems
File Name :
2_2_dedusting_1
Topic: Estimation of Vent Air Volume
ESTIMATION OF VENT AIR VOLUMES
Estimation of vent air volume is the first step in engineering a dust collection system. Theair volume to be vented form any machinery hood or transfer point depends on manyfactors such as the physical nature of the material handled, air currents and surgescreated by the movement of machinery parts and materials, the type of enclosure
provided. Therefore, certain accepted standards which give ruleofthumb methods haveto be followed. The following recommended procedures extracted from:
Industrial VentilationPublished by American Conference of GovernmentIndustrial Hygienists, U.S.A.
could be used as guideline in estimation of air volumes.
It may be noted here, for guidance, that when the venting volume is expressed in cubicmeters, this refers to actual operating conditions at site under consideration. however, ifthe volume is expressed in NM3, then this volume is to be corrected for actual operatingtemperature and altitude above mean sea level.
1. CLOSED TOP BINS:
Volume = K x volume of entering material.The value of K ranges form 1 (for large bins, low feed rates, coarse feed) to
50 (small bins, high feed rate, fine material).
The minimum rate is 3600 M3/Hr per M2 of bin opening.
2. BUCKET ELEVATORS:
1800 M3/Hr/Sq. Metre of elevator casing section. For elevators over 10 M height,connect exhaust from both top and bottom.
3. BELT CONVEYORS:
3600 M3/Hr per sq. metre of openings in enclosure, but minimum
1950 M3/Hr/metre belt width for belt speeds under 1 M/sec.
2800 M3/Hr/metre belt width for belt speeds over 1M/sec.Additional volume for greater than 1 metre fall and dusty material:
1200 M3/Hr for belt width 300 mm to 1000 mm
1700 M3/Hr for belt width above 1000 mm

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4. FLAT DECK SCREEN:
3600 M3/Hr/M2 through hood openings, but minimum.
900 M3/Hr/M2 screen area.
5. CYLINDRICAL SCREEN:
1800 M3/Hr/M2 circular cross section of screen, but minimum.
7200 M3/Hr/M2 of enclosure opening.
6. AIRVEYOR & PNEUMATIC SCREW PUMP SYSTEMS:
Multiply free air volume of the system as follows:For conveying distances upto 150 M  1.5 timesFor conveying distances over 150 M  1.75 times
7. PNEUMATIC GRAVITY CONVEYOR & BLENDING SYSTEMS:
1.0 times free air volume of the system.
8. SCREW CONVEYORS:
If dust tight, ventilate feed point only. Use 1100 M3/Hr per metre of nominal conveyordiameter corrected for height of fall of feed.
9. CRUSHERS:
At feed end: Minimum of 2700 M3/Hr/M2 of feed hood opening.At discharge: Measure air current surges and allow 50% excess.
10. ROTARY CRUSHER:These act as fans. Restrict ingress of air at feed point. Measure air quantity atdischarge and add 50%. (Crusher manufacturer's recommendations to be called for).
11. GRINDING MILLS:
Use the larger of the following:A. 0.5 M/sec to 0.6 M/sec through the cross section area of the mill.B. 1 M/sec through each aperture.
C. 8.5 M3/Hr/HP of Raw Mill motor rating.
D. 13 M3/Hr/HP of Cement Mill motor rating.(N.B. These figures are for operating temperatures of the Mills).

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12. MECHANICAL AIR SEPERATORS:
Where cooling or drying is carried out in Separator, use outlet volumes from detailed
calculations. Maximum air volumes at 88 oC are indicated below for Air Separators:
Separator Size *Volume at Sea Level4.267 M dia. 31,300 M3/Hr
4.877 M dia. 44,000 M3/Hr
5.486 M dia. 59,500 M3/Hr
6.096 M dia. 74,000 M3/Hr
6.706 M dia. 83,300 M3/Hr
7.315 M dia. 92,700 M3/Hr* For any other temperature or altitude, correct volume by applying densitycorrection factor.
13. GRATE OPENINGS:
A. (Floor or bench dumping  not enclosed)
2700 to 3600 M3/Hr/M2 of grate area.B. (Enclosed three sides and top)
2700 M3/Hr/M2 of net face area.
14. 60 T/Hr CEMENT PACKER :
i) Packer Guard  100 M3/Min.
ii) Top of Packer  15 M3/Min.
iii) Control Screen  20 M3/Min.

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BookII Chapter 2
Dedusting Systems
File Name : 2_2_dedusting_5
Topic: Duct Balancing
BALANCING OF DUCT SYSTEM RESISTANCE
1. In a ducting network having branch entries or exits, it is essential to balance systemresistance at every joint (i.e., where a branching takes place), in order to obtain desiredflow rate in each branch.
2. In the typical network shown below, balancingis to be done as follows:
10
1
2
11
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Dedusting Network
13
10
1
2
11
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Dedusting Network
13

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4. Find resistance Wg in 11_13&12_13 say R1 & R2 respectively (mm of Wg)
3. Select Main & Branch  11_13 Main, 12_13 Branch entry
2. Select velocities in ducts 11,13&12,13 (m/sec)
1. Find volume flow rate  m3 at temp. Deg. C, at point 11 & 12 (m3/sec, 0C)
3. Actual Balancing: Typical at junction 13
Fan SP = R6 + Outlet VP at '6'
Total system resistance = R6=R8=R9
7:8 & 7:97 (R7 + R7,9)/ R9(R7 + R7,8)/ R8 =
(R5 + R5,7)/ R7(R5 + R5,6)/ R6 =5:6 & 5:7
5R3 + R3,4 + R4,5 = R5
R310:3 & (R2+2:3)3
R21:2 & (R13+13:2)2
R1311:13 & 12:1313
ResistanceBalance Resistance betweenJunction Reference

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5. Find which is higher resistance  say R1 > R2
6. Find percentage of balance = ((R1  R2)/ R1) x 100 %
7. Item 6 should be < 20%
8. If item 6 > 20% redo, line with less resistance 12,13. Increase velocity, to find R12 , 13> R2 say, now R12_13 = R3
9. Recheck % balance, i.e., find which resistance is greater between R3 & R1say R3 > R1Therefore, % balance = ((R3  R1)/R3) x 100% < 20% O.K.
10. Now between R3 & R1 which are within 20% of balance, R3 > R1
11. Now governing resistance is R3 = R13 which is resistance in line 12_13
12. Reevaluate volume flow in line 11_13 for this governing pressureVol 11_13 = Qfinal = Qestimated x square root (R3/R1)
where R3 and R1 are in mm of Wg.
Qestimated = Original estimated volume flow (m3/sec)
Qfinal = actual volume flow or corrected (m3/sec)
13. Now we know volume flow at 13_2 which is Q11_13 + Q12_13=Q13_2If there is appreciable temp difference between two air current, find volume of mix andtemp.
14. Select velocity in 13_2, which should be velocity in 11_13 & 12_13
15. Find resistance in 13_2 (mm of Wg)
16. Add R13 to item 15 to get resistance in point 2 = R 13 + R13_2

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17. Find VP in line 13_2 (velocity will depend upon standard pipe)
VP = V2 x Pair/2g mm of Wg (for metric)
18. Find equivalent VP in terms of velocity in line 11_13&12_13, say, line 1&2respectivelytherefore, equivalent VP = VP1_2
=(Q1 + Q2)2 x Pair / (A1 + A2)
2 x2g mm of Wg (for metric system)
For metric system: Pair = Kg/m3
Q1 = m3/sec in Branch 1
Q2 = m3/sec in Branch 2
A1 = m2  area or Branch 1
A2 = m2  area or Branch 2
g = 9.81 m/s2  Accelaration due to gravity
19. Find difference between VP in line 13_2 and equivalent VPi.e., (VP13_2  VP1_2) < 2.5 mm of Wg
20. If fig in 19 above is > 2.5 mm of Wg then add this to resistance of line 13_2, to getresistance at point 2therefore, Pressure at point 2 = R13 + R13_2 + (VP13_2  VP1_2) mm of Wg
This resistance is added to indicate requirement of extra pressure for accelaration tohigher velocity, required in the line, after a branch has been connected.
21. Proceed for balancing at joint 2 as described for joint 13 and so on, till completenetwork is balanced.
Abbreviations used:R1_2  means resistance between point 1 & 2
R2  means resistance / static pressure at point 2
VP  Velocity Pressure

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5) The gas velocity in the ESP = v m/sec. is constant
4) Under the influence of Electric field, the charged dust particles move towards thecollecting electrodes at uniform velocity = W cms. / sec.
3) Influence of Electric Wind is negligible.
2) Dust collected on the plates are not reentrained into the gas stream.
1) Dust particles are uniformly distributed over the entire cross sectional area of ESP
We shall assume the following:
0.998=
1RC
RO:=
Then the efficiency of dust collection
gms. / m3RC 0.1:=RC Dust concentration at ESP outlet
gms. / m3RO 60:=RO Dust concentration at ESP inlet
Efficiency of an ESP is defined by its capacity to remove dust from the carrying gases. Ifthe gas volume flow rate is constant, the dust concentration at the inlet and at the out letcan be denoted by the following variables.
An appreciation of Deutsch Formula
This example is for understanding of Deutsch Formula and not for evaluation of ESPefficiency
Topic: Electrostatic Precipitator Deutsch Efficiency Formula
File Name : 2_2_dedusting_9
Dedusting Systems
BookII Chapter 2

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m2df 0.02=
m2df 2 b dx:=
df Now the elemental collecting area ( m2 )
gms.g 0.09=
b . 2d . dx is equal to the volume of the inter electrode space of length dx 
considered in m3
g RX b 2 d dx:=
mdx 0.01:=dx Let us consider an inter electrodes spaceof length at a distance = x from inlet.
mb 1:=b Let us denote the electric field height
md 0.15:=d Let the distance between collecting anddischarge electrode be
gms. /m3RX 30:=RX Let dust conc. at distance x from inlet be
gms.gg The amount of dust particle at this space
RC
RO
d
x
dxb
L
W V
Collecting Electrode
Discharge Electrode

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RO
RC
g1
g
d 6.397=
Now let us put the limits of dust loading and time and integrating we get the following
k 0.035=
kdg
g:=
gms.dg 3.12 103=
dg dg:=
Since dust is removed from gas , we will assign negative () sign to the value of dg
dg 3.12 10 3= gms.
dg RX V:=
RX 30=
Since the dust content in this space is RX gms.dust settled =dg
m3V 1.04 104=
m3V 2 b dxW
100
dt:=
cm/secW 13:=W Migration velocity
dt .04:=quantity of dust = dg gms. settle on this elementalarea at a time dt sec.after a time tx ( the time totravel fron inlet to distance = x )
This means , all the dust particles with migration velocity of = W/100 m/sec., within adistance of W x dt/100 from the two surfaces of collecting area will settle down on theplates. Since the particles are assumed to be uniformly distributed, the gas volume which
contain all these dust particles = V m3
Let us now assume that a quantity of dust = dg gms. settle on this elemental area at atime dt after a time tx ( the time to travel fron inlet to distance = x )

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mg / m3RC 1000 RC:=
RC 0.000136=gms. / m3
RC RO e
W
100
t
d
:=
RC Dust conc. at outlet (gms. / m3)
t 15=sec
sectL
v:=
m/secv 0.8:=v Gas velocity
mL 12:=L Total length of ESP
Since the gas travels through the total active length of the ESP = L m in total time = tsec. at a velocity = v m/sec. we have:
RX RO e
Wtx
100 d
:=
Or
lnRX
RO
W
100 d
tx 0( ):=lnRX
RO
W
100 d
tx 0( ):=
Or
K1
0
tx
tW
100 d
d:=
tx 5:=time tx ( the time to travel fron inlet to distance = x )
K1
RO
RC
g1
g
d:=

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efficiency of collection
v velocity of gas in ( m/sec )
d Distance between Collecting and Discharge Electrodes in ( m )
L Total active length of ESP in ( m )
W Migration velocity in ( cm. / sec )
Where
0.9999977397=
exp1
100W
L
v d( )
2.26 106
=
e
W
100
L
v d
1 e
W
100
L
v d
:=
Since t= L/v we can write the expression as
1 e
W
100
t
d
:=
Or
1RO e
W
100
t
d
RO:=
Or
0.998=
1RC
RO:=
Or
mg / m3RC 0.136=

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Now please refer to evaluation of Sp. Collecting Area = f m2/m3/sec
f W
L
v d:=
So the Deutsche formula can be written as
1 e
W
100
L
v d
:=
Or
1 e
W f
100:=
Corrollaries
In the process of deriving the basic formula for ESP collection efficiency we can make thefollowing important observations.
1 e
W
100
L
v d
:=
1) For same efficiency and all other conditions of operations remaining same W/d is aconstant = K1 Or W= K1*d
i.e. W increases in direct linear proportion to d  the distance between collecting and
discharge electrodes.This would , however, mean higher voltage and rating ofTransformer / Rectifier sets
2 ) W / v is a costant i.e W increases in direct proportion of v  velocity of gases.But thevelocity cannot be increased very much as it has negative influence of re entraining thedust particles.

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Volatility2_3_laboratory_11
Separation of ESP and Filter Dust2_3_laboratory_10
Burnability Investigation2_3_laboratory_9
Raw Mix Investgation2_3_laboratory_8
Fuel Investgation2_3_laboratory_7
Mineralogical Investigations2_3_laboratory_6
Chemical Tests2_3_laboratory_5
Tests Conducted at Physical Laboratory2_3_laboratory_4
Purposes of Tests2_3_laboratory_3
Coal Samples A Point of View2_3_laboratory_2
Quantity of Raw Material Samples for Lab. Investigation2_3_laboratory_1
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
File Name : 2_3_laboratory
Laboratory Investigations
BookII Chapter 3

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BookII Chapter 3
Laboratory Investigations
File Name : 2_3_laboratory_5
Topic: Chemical Tests
Tests Conducted at Chemical Labs:For ease of understanding a sample Lab report has been referred to:
Summary report/observation:
1) It may be observed that Sulphate Resistant cement is defined as ASTM  Type V
where C3A 5% and (C4AF + 2C3A) 20%.
2) Alkali equillibrium factor Q is < 1 (Q=0.71). Hence no alkali by pass is required.If Chlorine content is > 0.04% then Alkali by pass is necessary (Cl  Free of Loss basis).Alkali & Sulphates combine to form alkali sulphates.when Q = 1 all alkalies combine with sulphates. (Equillibrium)
Q > 1 There is excess of SO3.
Q < 1 There is Alkali excess.
719462
80
22
3
ClOKONa
SO
Q ++=
where SO3, Na2O etc are % of these present in Clinker (including ash effect) on loss freebasis. 80, 62 etc. represent Molecular weight of SO3, Na2O etc.
3) Influence of fuel ash is significant and reduces Lime standard by 10 points, eg. from105 in Raw meal to 95 in clinker.
4) Burnability is normally poor with high Quartz content in Raw meal. But due to the fact
that most of the quartz is in size fraction < 90, the influence of same on Burnability isminimum.
5) Raw mix and ESP dust (size fraction 0  32) show similar chemical composition.
Individual Tests:All raw materials are assessed interms of colour, structure, hardness in mole's scale,moisture content on receipt and moisture absorption when kept under water.Under water storage of material reveals its properties with respect to flowability speciallyfor clay etc. Crushing strength is determined for crusher selection.

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Bulk density of material is determined after crushing the material in laboratory crusher.This value is used to determine storage value, eg. for stockpile value, Raw materialhopper value etc. The grain size analysis is done after crushing in the Laboratory
crusher to predict grain size distribution after crushing operation in industrial scale andthis information is used in crusher selection & design.
Chemical composition of Raw materials is determined by Atomic Absorption test. Thiscan also be done by X'ray analysis. Individual components are determined as under:
%SiO2  By Atomic absorption test (AAS)
%Al2O3  By Atomic absorption test (AAS)
%TiO2  Calorimetric  By Photometer
%Fe2O3  By Atomic absorption test (AAS)%Mn2O3  By Atomic absorption test (AAS)
%CaO  Complexometric  Titration%MgO  By Atomic absorption test (AAS)%SO3  (Total Sulphur) LECO
%P2O5  Calorimetric  By Photometer
%Na2O  By Flame Photometer
%K2O
%Cl  By Titration

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BookII Chapter 3
Laboratory Investigations
File Name : 2_3_laboratory_8
Topic: Raw Mix Investgation
Rawmix Design:One of the most important purpose of various tests is to determine a suitable Raw mixcapable of producing cement of desirable quality. We have already analysedcomposition of various raw materials and correctives as well as fuel ash. Followingparameters are fixed:
1) Consider coal ash absorption in clinker as 100%.2) Set value for lime standard at 95%. This is the most important set value fordetermining Raw mix composition so that Lime saturation factor in clinker is 95%.Normal range 92  97% in clinker.3) Second set point is for Silica ratio (2.4 to 2.8 in clinker).4)Third set point is for Alumina ratio (1.8 to 2.2 in clinker).For solving the equations, following rule may apply.For 2 component mix  1 set point i.e., Lime saturation factor
3 component mix  2 set point i.e., Lime saturation factor and Silica ratio4 component mix  3 set point i.e., Lime saturation factor, Silica ratio, Alumina
ratio
Normal liquid phase  22  28%If liquid phase is less, then cement is harder to burn, and produces SRC(Sulphateresistant cement). Various formulae for different ratios are indicated. If TiO2 and Mn2O3are separately determined, then TiO2 should be included in Al2O3 and Mn2O3 should beincluded in Fe2O3 for calculating the ratios.

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Not to be copied in any form or distributed or resold
Property of:Softideas Pvt. Ltd., 5 Sinbai Niwas, Gokhale Nagar Road,
Model Colony, Pune411016
Reactivity of Coal as a Function of Fineness2_4_fuel_6n
Calculation of Flame Temperature2_4_fuel_5n
Calculation of Products of combustion2_4_fuel_4n
Calculation of Combustion air2_4_fuel_3n
Calculation of Coal Analysis and Heat Values of Coal2_4_fuel_2
Calculation of Capacities in Coal Preparation Section2_4_fuel_1
Topic: Expanded Table Of Contents
File Name : 2_4_fuel
Fuels and Fuel Systems
BookII Chapter 4

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BookII Chapter 4
Fuels and Fuel Systems
File Name : 2_4_fuels_2
Topic: Calculation of Coal Analysis and Heat Values Coal
Fuel Analysis and Calculation of Heat Values of Coal
This document covers fuel analysis and heat values calculation for solid fuel and liquidfuel namely, coal and fuel oil respectively.
If a fuel as received in the plant is analysed without any change in its state then it will be
termed as "Analysis (as received basis)".
Normally ultimate analysis of fuel on as received basis will be available from thelaboratory.
Solid fuel i.e., Coal, in many a case, is dried to a large extent before being fired into thefurnace. Dryers used are capable of drying the surface moisture of coal and the inherentmoisture remains in coal. This is because the temperature of coal is not allowed toexceed 80100 0C (to avoid coking and preignition in the pipeline) and at thistemperature, with sufficient heat available only surface moisture can be dried where as todry inherent moisture, the coal should be heated to 108 0C. This is not done due toassociated 'Process problems'.
In any material's drying operation, inherent moisture cannot be dried at temperature