Aspects of Negation

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Aspects ot NegationAspects ot Negation:c:irxiscn rrorrscnrir+ter verkrijging van de graad van doctoraan de Lniversiteit van Amsterdam,op gezag van de Pector MagnicusProt. Dr. P.W.M. de Meijerten overstaan van een door het college van dekaneningestelde commissiein het openbaar te verdedigen in de Aula der Lniversiteitop +- mei +ooo te +.:o uurdoor Pieter lohannus Kahrelgeboren te AmsterdamPromotores: Prot. Dr. H. PinksterProt. Dr. S.C. Dik1vpeset in Bembo +++: bv the authorPrinted bv Krips Pepro, Meppel, the Netherlands1his research vas supported bv the loundation tor Iinguistic Pesearch,vhich vas tunded bv the Netherlands Organization tor ScienticPesearch (xvo).I see nobodv on the road, said Alice.I onlv vish I had such eves, the King remarked in a trettul tone.1o be able to see Nobodv'[|Who did vou pass on the road the King vent on, holding out hishand to the Messenger tor some more hav.Nobodv, said the Messenger.Quite right, said the King: this voung ladv sav him too. So otcourse Nobodv valks slover than vou.I do mv best, the Messenger said in a sulkv tone. Im surenobodv valks much taster than I do'He cant do that, said the King, or else hed have been here rst.Ievis Caroll, ii.e iu 1ouoeriauo1o Simon DikPretaceSimon Dik vas the best teacher one could vish tor. I am extremelvgratetul to him tor teaching me various aspects ot linguistics: not onlvthe cratt itselt, such as theoretical linguistics and tvpologv, but also ageneral attitude tovards and appreciation ot language and languages.And his students are not onlv taught linguistics, thev get an excellentteachers training course in the process. I am also gratetul to him torsupervising the research project that led to this book. He has been aconstant source ot inspiration and encouragement. I amonlv too sorrvthat he did not live to see this book nished.While I vas completing this thesis, Simon Dik tell seriouslv ill andvas no longer able to supervise the last stages ot this book. I am vervgratetul toHarmPinkster tor taking over the taskot supervisor. He readthroughthe manuscript several times andgave comments vhichturnedout to be a signicant improvement.I am also verv gratetul to mv vite, Anna Sievierska. 1his book hasbeen an excercise in patience tor her almost as much as it has been torothers. But I also vish to thank her tor encouraging me to nish thisproject, tor reading the rst dratts and improving both its contents andits stvle.Over the vears, I have presented parts ot this book during a numberot talks and have beneted trom comments trom several ot people. Ivant tosingle out here lohanvan der Auvera, GiulianoBernini, Mach-telt Bolkestein, William Crott, Osten Dahl, Matthev Drver, MartinHaspelmath, Kees Hengeveld, Simonvande Kerke, ChristianIehmann,IachlanMackenzie, YaronMatras, Pieter Muvsken, lanPijkho, IeonStassen and Co Vet. I also vant to thank the members ot the lunctionalGrammar vork groups, vho commented on talks I did tor that torum.Anumber ot people have helped me interpret various language dataand provided me vith additional material vhen I could not nd datain descriptive grammars vhich untortunatelv vas rather otten the case.I vish to thank Peter Bakker (Cree), Sandra Bertocchi (Italian),Hans denBesten(Nama), Martine Cuvulav (Arabic), Gerrit Dimmen-daal (1urkana), Casper de Groot (Hungarian), Katva Gruzdeva (Gilvak),viii Irefa.ethe late Sie Ing Djiang (Mandarin, Indonesian), Iars Kristoersen(WestGreenlandic), Pieter Muvsken(Quechua), Igor Nedvalkov(Chuckchi,Lvenki, Ket), Ger Peesink (Lsan), Arie Spruit (Abkhaz), 1onjes Veen-stra (Saramaccan) and leroen Wiedenhot (Mandarin). 1he author canbe reached at p.kahreiOiau.aster.a..uk.ContentsAbbreviations and conventions xi1ables, gures and maps xiii1 Introduction 1+.+ 1he traditional approach :+.: 1vpological adequacv o+.: A note on terminologv o: Negation in Iunctional Grammar 1:.+ 1he structure ot lunctional Grammar +::.+.+ Clause Structure +|:.+.: 1erms +o:.: Negation in rt +:.:.+ Predicate negation +:.:.: Predicational and propositional negation +:.:.: Illocutionarv negation :::.: 1erm negation :|:.:.+ 1erm quantication :-:.:.: 1erm negation as zero quantication : A typology ot term negation ::.+ Outline ot the tvpologv :o:.+.+ 1vpe +: neg plus indenite :o:.+.: 1vpe :: neg plus special indenite |::.+.: 1vpe :: zero-quantication |o:.+.| 1vpe |: neg plus zero-quantication |:.+.- 1vpe -: Lxistential construction -::.: Multiple tvpes --:.: Indeniteness o:x Couteuts| 1he negative element oo|.+ 1he categorial status ot xrt o|.: Multiple particle negatives o|.:.+ Quechua o|.:.: Manaravi +|.:.: Babungo :|.:.| Arabic -|.:.- Navaho o|.:.o Dutch and Basque |.:. Negation and locus o|.:. Conclusion oo: 1erm negation and language typology o:-.+ 1he sample o--.+.+ Classication ot the languages o--.+.: Sample design +oo-.+.: Potential sources ot bias +o:-.: Areal and genetic distribution +oo-.: Correlations vith other aspects ot the grammar ++oo Conclusion 1::Appendix +:oPeterences +::Subject index +|oIanguage index +|:Name index +||Abbreviations and conventionsAbbreviationsMost ot the abbreviations used in the text are listed belov. Idiosvncraticabbreviations are explained vhere thev occur.:is absolutive:cc accusative:x+ anterior:sr aspect:ut augment:ux auxiliarvci classiercoii collectivecoxc concessivecoxx connectivecor copulai:+ dativeirci declarativeii direct objectrxci encliticrx existentialrx+ extensiverc tree choice particlerrx temininerorx tormative verb prexru+ tuturetrx genitiven:i habitualixxr:s+ immediate pastixr imperativeixrr impertectiveixirr indeniteixiic indicativeixr innitiveix+r intransitiveioc locativex:sc masculinex neuterxrt negativexox nominativexoxizr nominalizerxoxr non-tactualxoxrix nonnitexoxrrr non-reterentialoij objectr:r+ partitiver:s+ pastrrrr pertectiveri pluralrxrt past negativeross possessiverr:r+ past participlerrrs presentrrr+ pretiriter+ci particleo question particlerrcrx+r:s+ recent pastrri relativers relativized subjects subjectst singularss same subjectsuij subject+xs tense+r:xs transitivexii ||re:iatious auo .ou:eutiousEamplesLxample sentences are presented as I tound them in the sources. 1heinterlinear glosses and abbreviations used have been streamlined tocomplv as much as possible vith Iehmann (+o:). In the event that no or incomplete interlinear glosses vere given bv the source, I havereconstructed them as best as possible.Sources are givenvitheachexample sentence. Onrst mention, thelanguage name and the tull reterence are given. lurther examples tromthe same source have onlv the page reterence atter the translation ot theexample.Language namesIanguages are classied geneticallv according to Puhlen (+o), vithone exception, namelv the organizationot vhat Puhlencalls Caucasian(see p. o|). Ianguage names are spelled as thev are in Puhlen. Whenan author uses a dierent name, the name variant used bv Puhlen isadopted here tor consistencvs sake. Variant names have been checkedvith Grimes (+o). I use the group names in Puhlen, vith one excep-tion: I vill use Pomance rather than Puhlens name Italic. See Chap-ter - tor discussion.1ables, gures and maps1ables+. Distribution ot the tvpes ::. Sample languages classied ::. lunction ot negative elements per language +|. Number ot negative elements in each language o-. Non-tactual environments o+. Sample languages listed bv genetic aliation o. Distribution ot languages across continents +o:o. Distribution ot term negation tvpes across continents +o|+o. Distribution ot term negation tvpes relative to each tvpe +o++. Distribution ot the term negation tvpes across Nicholsmacro-areas +oo+:. 1vpological characteristics ot languages using more than one termnegation tvpe +oo+:. Distribution ot term negation tvpes in Bernini and Pamatssample ++++|. Distribution ot term negation tvpes in Haspelmaths sample ++|+-. Distinct negative markers in imperatives across continents(Drvers areas) ++o+o. Distinct negative markers in imperatives across continents (Nicholsareas) +++. Distribution ot vord order tvpes across continents +:o+. Distribution ot term negation tvpes across vord order tvpes +:++o. Multiple term negation per vord order tvpe +:::o. Distribution ot zero quantication versus other tvpes +:oIigures+. 1he clause structure +::. Ievels and variables +|:. Crotts tvpes ||. 1he structure ot Amerind +o+-. 1he structure ot Niger-Kordotanian +o:o. Distribution ot basic vord order tvpes +:oxiv ||re:iatious auo .ou:eutiousMaps+. Iocation ot the sample languages ooo:. Iocation ot the term negation tvpes +o:. Ianguages using alternative term negation strategies ++o|. Distribution in Bernini and Pamats sample ++:-. Distribution ot languages using dierent negative elementsin negative declaratives and negative imperatives ++1 Introduction1his studv vill be concerned vith the analvsis ot negative sentencesvhich in Lnglish are expressed bv negative indenite torms such as uox, uoue of the x, uo|ooy and uothiug. Although negation in language hasbeen investigated extensivelv both in philosophv and linguistics, thistvpe ot negation, vhich I vill somevhat ideosvncraticallv call +rrxxrt:+iox (see sections +.: and:.:.:), has not. Consequentlv, it is ottenassumed that the analvses adopted tor other torms ot negation holdequallv vell tor the expression ot uothiug, etcetera. 1his, hovever, ishighlv questionable, particularlv it the cross-linguistic realizations ot thephenomenon under consideration are taken into account.1his book oers preciselv such a cross-linguistic perspective. 1heonlv tvo vorks