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Karyotypes Vooraf ; enkele opmerkingen over " speciale" karyotypes 1.- Wikipedia . Genoomverdubbeling gaat , volgens mij , in één keer. Ook weet ik wel dat chromosoomverdubbelingen bij zoogdieren voorkomen, en er zijn soorten met verschillende karyotypen (= verschillende aantallen chromosomen), zoals de muntjak . Organism e Neurospo ra 14 http://www.stanford.edu/group/neurospora/UsefulPDFs/ PerkinsChromosomes92.pdf http://www.broadinstitute.org/annotation/genome/ neurospora/neurospora.html Corn 20 Pad (Bufo american s)22 Boon 22 kikker (Rana pipiens) 26 kat huiska t 38

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Vooraf ; enkele opmerkingen over " speciale" karyotypes

1.- Wikipedia. Genoomverdubbeling gaat , volgens mij , in n keer. Ook weet ik wel dat chromosoomverdubbelingen bij zoogdieren voorkomen, en er zijn soorten met verschillende karyotypen (= verschillende aantallen chromosomen), zoals de muntjak.


Neurospora 14



Corn 20

Pad (Bufo americans)22

Boon 22

kikker (Rana pipiens) 26


huiskat 38

________________________________________________Domestic cat Felis catusWienberg J, Stanyon R, Nash WG, O'Brien PC, Yang F, O'Brien SJ, and Ferguson-Smith MA. Conservation of human vs. feline genome organization revealed by reciprocal chromosome painting. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 77: 211-217, 1997.

Rettenberger G, Klett C, Zechner U. Cat and human karyotypes closely resemble the putative ancestral mammalian karyotype Chromosome Research 3: 479-486.

Murphy WJ et al. A cat radiation hybrid map: implications for comparative genomics. Submitted.

O'Brien SJ, Cevario, SJ, Martenson JS, Thompson ME, Nash WG, Chang E, Graves JAM., Spencer JA, Cho K.-W, Tsujimoto H, and Lyons LA. 1997. Comparative gene mapping in the domestic cat (Felis catus). J. Heredity 88: 408-414.

O'Brien SJ, Wienberg J, and Lyons LA. Comparative genomics: Lessons from cats. Trends Genet. 13: 393-399, 1997.

LGD Web address: http://rex.nci.nih.gov/lgd/front_page.htm

Rhesus aapje 42



Figure 1: Normal Chromosome Set (2n)


Primates karyotype evolution tree http://www.riverapes.com/Me/Work/HumanHybridisationTheory.htm












CHROMOSOME BANDING AND EVOLUTIONL. James GibsonGeoscience Research Institute

Aantal Chromosomen(2n ) & Karyotype in lichaamscellen


http://www.kumc.edu/gec/prof/cytogene.html http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/gender/pdf/xsandoscards.pdf

kangoeroe 22

The tammar wallaby karyotype (2 n = 16) consists of 7 autosomes and the two sex chromosomes.[4]

reuzenkangoeroe 22

mol 34

huismuis 40

Normal_Mus_musculus_karyotype.jpg (Normal Mus musculus karyotype)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/mouse/n http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/other/mouse_facts4.shtml

Composite mouse karyotype illustrating fluorescence signals from simultaneous hybridization of BACs linked to genetic markers defining the centromeric and telomeric ends of the genetic maps. Centromeric clones are shown in red; telomeric clones in green.



rat 42


Siberische tijger 38

varken 38

goudhamster 44

konijn 44

vleermuis (Myotis) 44

egel 48 haas 48

kapucijnaap 54

rund 60cavia 64

paard 64 http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/equine/caballus/



hond 78

Chromosome aberrations in canine multicentric lymphomas detected with comparative genomic hybridisation and a panel of single locus probes

R Thomas, K C Smith, E A Ostrander, F Galibert and M Breen

Figure 3.

Previous figure | Figure and tables index

Composite of CGH profiles from 25 canine lymphoma cases.

The DAPI-banded ideogram of Breen et al (1999a) is displayed. For each case, genomic gains and losses are shown as green and red bars to the right and left of each chromosome, respectively. Each vertical bar represents a site of genomic imbalance in a single case (cases are identified at the top or bottom of red/green bars), and demonstrates the physical extent of the chromosome over which the aberration was detected. The evolutionarily conserved chromosome segments shared with the human karyotype (taken from Breen et al, 2001) are identified with coloured bars to the far left of each chromosome.



Karyotype of a dog (Canis familiaris)

Breen, Matthew, PhD. C.Biol. M.I.BiolAssociate Professor of Genomics

Canine Karyotpye

The genome of the dog is estimated to be approximately 2.5 billion bases in size. This genetic information is divided into 78 chromosome - 38 pairs of acrocentric (single-armed) autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes. In females both sex chromosomes are X chromosomes and in males there is one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. A typical chromosome preparation (at the metaphase stage of mitosis) from a male dog is shown below. In this preparation, the chromosomes have been banded to allow identification of chroimosome pairs.

Using multicolor FISH we are able to conclusively identify each chromosome pair and generate a karyotype of the above cell, as shown below.

NC State College of Veterinary MedicineMolecular Biomedical Sciences4700 Hillsborough StreetRaleigh, NC 27606919-513-6220

Zie ook : Hondenschedel uit Waalse grot is oudste ter wereld




Gene map of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) contains 35 biochemical loci. Gene symbol abbreviations are as follows: HPRT, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase; IDH1, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1; ITPA, inosine triphosphatase; LDHA, lactate dehydrogenase A; LDHB, lactate dehydrogenase B; ME1, malic enzyme-1; MDH1, malate dehydrogenase-1 (NAD dependent); MDH2, malate dehydrogenase-2 (NAD dependent); MPI, mannose phosphate isomerase; NOR, nucleolar organizer region; NP, purine nucleoside phosphorylase; OTC, ornithine carbamoyltransferase; PEPA, peptidase A; PGD, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; PGM 1, phosphoglucomutase- 1; PGP, phosphoglycolate phosphatase; PRNP, prion protein; PP, inorganic pyrophosphatase; SST, somatostatin peptide.

FIGURE 2 Syntenic genes and similar patterns of GTG banding on human, mink, cat, and fox chromosomes. The short arm of human chromosome 1 (HSA1p), the long arm of mink chromosome 2 (MVI2q), and the short arm of cat chromosome C1 (FCA C1p) exhibit similar banding patterns. Regional assignments of homologous genes are as follows: PGM1, PGD, ENO1 to HSA1p; the homologous mink genes to MVI2q; and the cat genes homologous to PGM1 and PGD to FCA C1. The human PGD and ENO1 genes are located very close to each other. In the fox, PGD was assigned to chromosome 2 (VVU2), but ENO1 and PGM1 were assigned to chromosome 12 (VVU12). The fox is the only known species to have these genes asyntenic. No region similar to Hsap1p, MVI2q, or FCA C1p was found on VVU2 or VVU12, nor was such a region found on MVI8 (containing the MDH 1, ACP1, ITPA, ADA genes), FCA A3 (the MDH1, ACP1, ITPA, ADA genes), HSA2p (containing the MDH1, ACP1 genes), or fox chromosomes VVU8 (containing the ACP1 gene), and VVU16 (containing the MDH1 gene). MVI8 and FCA A3 exhibit excellent banding pattern homology over the entire respective chromosomes. It is likely that they contain a region of homology with part of HSA2p. No region of similar banding was found on VVU16 or VVU8 (Rubtsov and others 1988).

sea otter, Enhydra lutris= 38 chromosomes,


Karyotypes of male and female sea otters (from Hsu & Benirschke, 1971).

Grevy's Zebra : 46 chromosomes,Plains Zebra : 44 chromosomesMountain Zebra has : 32 chromosomeshttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_chromosomes_does_a_zebra_have

Vogelsduif 80 eend 80 gans 80 huismus 76 kanarie 80kip 78 merel 80reiger 68wilde gans 80

Reptielenadder 36 alligator 32 aspisadder 42 hazelworm 44karetschildpad 58moerasschildpad 50zandhagedis 38



Amazonian Engystomops (Anura; Leiuperidae


Fig. 2. Karyotypes of male specimens of Engystomops petersi from Puyo (A) stained with Giemsa, (B) submitted to the AgNOR technique, (E) C-banded, (F) DAPI-stained (top) and MM-stained (bottom), (G) DAPI-stained (top) and MM-stained (bottom) after C-banding technique. The insets in (A, B and E) show the homomorphic and the heteromorphic pair XX from the females ZUEC 34939 (A and B), ZUEC 34935 (E) and ZUEC 34937, respectively. (C) NOR-bearing chromosomes of a female hybridized with the rDNA probe HM 123. Note that some heterochromatic regions clearly evidenced by AgNOR in (B) are not detected in (C). (D) NOR-bearing chromosomes of the male QCAZ 34940 after the AgNOR technique (left) and hybridized with the rDNA probe HM 123 (right). Note the additional NOR in one homologue 9. (H) Giemsa-stained karyotype from the Puyo female QCAZ 34935 with 2n = 23. The arrow points the trissomic set. In the insets, chromosome 8 after the AgNOR technique (left) and C-banding (right). Bar = 2 m.

Fig. 4. Cytogenetics of the Yasun specimen QCAZ 30826. (A) Karyotype submitted to C-banding. (B) Karyotype after AgNOR staining. The NORs were pointed by arrows. (C) Mitotic metaphase hybridized with the rDNA