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    Where Is the Love? The Social Aspects of MimicryAuthor(s): Rick van Baaren, Loes Janssen, Tanya L. Chartrand and Ap DijksterhuisSource: Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 364, No. 1528, Evolution,Development and Intentional Control of Imitation (Aug. 27, 2009), pp. 2381-2389Published by: The Royal SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40486012.

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    PHILOSOPHICAL

    TRANSACTIONS

    OF

    "fj

    THE

    ROYAL

    W'

    SOCIETY

    JlJ

    Phil.

    Trans. . Soc. B

    (2009) 364,

    2381-2389

    doi: 0.1 98/rstb.2009.0057

    Where

    is

    the love?

    The social

    aspects

    of

    mimicry

    Rick

    van

    Baaren1'*,

    Loes

    Janssen2,

    anya

    L.

    Chartrand3

    and Ap Dijksterhuis1

    1

    Behavioral

    cience

    nstitute,

    adboud

    University

    ijmegen,

    he Netherlands

    2

    Department

    f

    Communication,

    wente

    niversity,

    he Netherlands

    3Fugua

    Business

    chool,

    Duke

    University,

    urham,NC,

    USA

    One

    striking

    haracteristic

    f human

    ocial nteractionss unconscious

    mimicry;eople

    have a

    tendency

    o take

    ver

    ach

    other's

    osture,

    mannerismsnd

    behaviours ithoutwareness. ur

    goal

    sto make

    he

    ase that

    nconscious

    imicrylays

    n

    important

    ole

    n

    human

    ocial nter-

    action

    nd

    to show

    hat

    mimicry

    s

    closely

    elated o and

    moderated

    y

    our connectedness

    o

    others.

    irst

    we

    will

    position

    uman

    nconscious

    mimicry

    n

    relation o

    types

    f mitationsed

    in

    cognitive

    sychology

    nd

    cognitive

    euroscience.

    hen we

    will

    provide upport

    or ocial

    moderation

    f

    mimicry.

    haracteristics

    f both

    the mimickernd the

    mimickeenfluencehe

    degree

    f

    mimicry

    n a

    social

    nteraction.

    ext,

    we turn

    o the

    positive

    ocial

    consequences

    f

    thisunconsciousmimicryndwewillpresent ata showing owbeing mitatedmakespeople

    more ssimilative

    n

    general.

    n the inal

    ection,

    e discuss

    what hese

    indingsmply

    or

    heorizing

    on

    the

    mechanisms

    f

    mitation

    nd

    point

    ut everalssues hat

    eedto

    be resolved efore

    start

    can

    bemade

    o

    ntegrate

    his

    ield

    n thebroader

    ontext

    fresearchn imitation.

    Keywords:

    mitation;ocial;

    humans

    Imitation,

    y

    definition,

    s a

    truly

    ocial

    phenomenon:

    it

    takes

    wo

    to

    imitate.

    lthough

    t

    first

    lance

    his

    statement

    may

    seem

    somewhat

    rivial,

    he

    social

    nature

    f

    mitation

    n

    fact

    as

    notbeen

    fully

    ppreci-

    atedbycurrentheorizingn imitation. hereaswe

    know

    lot bout

    he

    mechanisms

    f

    mitation

    rom

    cognitive-,

    evelopmental-

    nd

    neuropsychological

    perspective,

    he

    ocial

    moderators

    nd

    consequences

    are ess

    wellunderstood.

    o we

    mitate

    verybody

    r

    are

    wemore

    elective?

    ow does

    our

    relationship

    o

    the

    mimicker

    rmimickee

    oderate

    mitation

    nd

    ts

    consequences?

    hat

    are the

    social

    consequences

    f

    imitation?

    he

    purpose

    f

    this

    paper

    s to

    present

    evidence

    or

    he

    ocial

    ide

    of mitation

    nd

    by

    doing

    so,

    hopefully

    nspire

    ther

    disciplines

    o

    integrate

    these

    indings

    n

    their

    heorizing

    nd

    empirical

    ork.

    It is

    not the

    ntention

    o

    provide

    complete

    eview

    ofall thework oneon mimicryfor review,ee

    Chartrand

    VanBaaren

    009),

    nstead,

    he

    paper

    s

    written

    o

    make

    strong

    ase

    for ocial

    processes

    n

    this

    ype

    f

    mitation.

    In

    the

    next

    ections

    we

    will

    provide

    vidence

    or

    social

    moderators

    nd

    consequences

    f

    mimicry,

    whereafter

    e

    will

    discuss

    the

    fit

    and

    misfit

    with

    current

    heorizing.

    t is

    not

    our

    ntention

    o

    ntegrate

    the

    present

    hapter

    n the

    theorizing

    one

    in other

    chapters

    n this

    pecial

    ssue,

    imply

    ecause

    here

    s

    just

    oo

    ittle

    esearch

    n this

    ype

    f

    mimicry

    n

    cog-

    nitive

    sychology

    nd

    cognitive

    euroscience.

    hat

    we

    do instead

    s

    point

    out

    which

    uestions,

    n our

    *

    Author

    or

    orrespondence

    [email protected]).

    One

    contribution

    f

    1 to

    a Theme

    Issue

    'Evolution,

    development

    and

    intentional

    ontrol

    f

    mitation'.

    view,

    houldbe addressed

    y

    studies

    n

    the near

    future.

    irst,

    however,

    e

    will

    clarify

    hat

    type

    of

    imitation

    s the

    focus f

    this

    aper.

    1. TYPE OF

    IMITATION:UNCONSCIOUS

    HUMAN

    MIMICRY

    The social

    sychological

    tudies

    roviding

    videnceor

    the social

    side

    of imitation

    ave

    mostly

    ocused

    n

    human

    mimicry.

    n this

    field,

    mimicry

    s denned

    s

    unconscious

    r automatic

    mitationf

    gestures,

    eha-

    viours,

    facial

    expressions,

    peech

    and

    movements

    (for

    n extensive

    eview ee

    Chartrand

    Van Baaren

    2009).

    A

    prototypical

    xample

    s when

    wo

    people

    n

    a bar are

    nvolved

    n a conversation

    nd are

    unaware

    of thefact hat

    hey

    ake

    on the

    same

    posture,

    od

    their

    eads,

    nd make

    he ame

    face

    rubbing

    r hair

    touchingmovements.his typeofmimicryhus s

    different

    rom he

    more

    onscious

    ypes

    f mitation

    that ave

    been

    tudied

    n therealm

    f

    earning,

    od-

    elling

    nd

    acculturation

    e.g.

    Bandura

    1962).

    This

    type

    f

    mimicry

    s

    also different

    rom

    he

    types

    sed

    in

    research

    n

    cognitive

    sychology

    nd

    cognitive

    neuroscience

    hat as

    focused n

    imitation

    see

    other

    chapters

    n

    the

    special

    ssue).

    The difference

    n this

    case

    centres

    round

    wareness;

    re

    you

    aware

    f the

    behaviour

    ou

    ee

    and are

    you

    ntentionallyrying

    o

    copy

    t?

    When

    t comes o unconscious

    mimicry,

    he

    answer o

    those

    questions

    s

    'no'.

    In

    most

    ognitive

    and

    neuropsychological

    tudies,

    t

    leastone of

    these

    questionss answeredy yes'.

    A related

    ey

    ifference

    etween he ocial

    psycho-

    logical

    tudies

    ndmost f

    he tudies

    n

    cognitive-

    nd

    cognitive

    euroscience

    s the

    elativeocus n

    ecological

    2381

    This

    journal

    s 2009 The

    Royal Society

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