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Collaborative Learning

Onderwijskundig OntwerpenHet effectief inzetten van technologie in de onderwijsleerpraktijk.

Vrijdag 11 januari 2013

Stijn Van LaerKU Leuven, Directie Onderwijs en Leren KU Leuven,Departement Onderwijsontwikkeling en ondersteuning,Cel Academische Vorming11: Teken onderwijzen 1: Teken onderwijzen Wil er iemand kort vertellen wat hij/zij tekende?

Onderwijs-opvattingen vantoekomstige leerkrachtenmet tekeningen achterhaald

(Herremans & Elen 2012)

OverzichtTechnologie als doelTechnologie als middelTechnologie en didactiekLeersituatie en leeromgevingOnderwijskundig ontwerpenBewegend beeld als ondersteunend medium

Technologie als doelTechnologie als doel op zich heeft geen toegevoegde waarde!

Hoogstens een vervangende waarde

We continue to invest in technology and proceed on the basis of our implicit faith in technologyenhanced learning and instruction. (Spector, 2010)

Technologie als middelTechnologie als middel, kan een (toegevoegde) waarde hebben wanneer er een nood aan technologie is en het design van de onderwijsleeractiviteit afgestemd is op de te bereiken leerdoelen, de context en de studentkenmerken.

The learning goal (especially the kind of knowledge or skill to be learned) determines to a great extent how to design effective support for learning. (Gagn, 1970)

Technologie en didactiek10Leersituatie & LeeromgevingLeersituatie vs LeeromgevingWat is op het moment Wat kan / moet gemaakt worden

11Onderwijskundig Ontwerpen (Instructional Design)

Onderwijskundig ontwerpen (instructional design)The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and a systematic design and development of learning environments and materials. (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2004).

Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.For example, during the war the United States Army Air Force produced more than 400 training films and 600 filmstrips, and during a two-year period (from mid-1943 to mid-1945) it was estimated that there were more than four million showings of training films to United States military personnel. (Reiser, 2001)

AudioVisual Instruction Movement after the war ended, the German Chief of General Staff said: "We had everything calculated perfectly except the speed with which America was able to train its people. Our major miscalculation was in underestimating their quick and complete mastery of film education. (Olsen & Bass, 1983)Verschillende ontwerpmodellen (ID-modellen)4C-ID Model (Jeroen van Merrinboer)Algo-Heuristic Theory (Lev Landa)ARCS (John Keller)ASSURE (Heinich, Molenda, Russel, and Smaldino)Backward Design (Wiggins & McTighe)Conditions of Learning (Robert Gagne)Component Display Theory (David Merrill)Criterion Referenced Instruction (Robert Mager)Integrative Learning Design Framework for Online Learning (Debbaugh)Spiral Model (Boehm)Rapid Prototyping (Tripp & Bichelmeyer)Kemp Design Model (Morrison, Ross, and Kemp)Organizational Elements Model (OEM) (Roger Kaufman)Transactional Distance (Michael Moore)15ADDIE-modelHet ADDIE model is een generisch model vaak gebruikt door Instructional Designers en Training Developers.

De vijf fasen - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, en Evaluation - representeren een dynamische, flexibele leidraad voor het bouwen van effectieve trainingen en ondersteuning.

De meeste huidige ontwerpmodellen (ID-modellen) zijn Spin-offs of variaties op het ADDIE-model.

16Onderwijskundig Ontwerpen (Instructional Design)

ObjectivesStudent CharacteristicsLearning ActivitiesLearning EnvironmentEvaluationSupportTeaching MethodsContentsMaterialsBy whomContextAnalysisDesignAt the K.U.Leuven we answer this question by using this scheme. It visualizes the different basic components of an educational practice and the connections between these components.Analysis & Design is everywhere.18

Design of the Learning Environment (I)ConceptualizationThe most crucial stage of the design process is conceptualization: from many requirements defined in the Analysis stage to a simple concept, preferably defined as a metaphor (the learning environment as an academy, campus, library, hospital, restaurant, boat, cloud, post office etc).

20Design of the learning Environment (II)The Camp Fire: This is a social learning space where students face each other, and in doing so gain an expectation that each should contribute something to the discussion and activities.The Cave: This is a personal learning space where students can be on their own. Personal learning spaces enable them to reflect on their learning, and create their own learning pathways.The Sandpit: Sandpits are places where young people can try out new ideas and experiment without fear of failure. They can take risks and ask the 'what if' questions, in a psychologically safe environment.The Watering Hole: Informal spaces where students can gather spontaneously, either inside or outside the school. Children can meet at the foot of a stairwell or under a tree to discuss anything, whether it is school related or not.The Mountain Top: Here young people can share their work and ideas. They can publish or broadcast them in a public performance space, or use blogs, podcasts, videos and other technology tools to share their content with their peers and the world.


Rol van technologie?ObjectivesStudent CharacteristicsLearning ActivitiesLearning EnvironmentEvaluationSupportTeaching MethodsContentsMaterialsBy whomContexteLink with e-learning: learning environment can be partially (blended) or completely online.

More on blended learning? 27Syllabi, background texts, PCs, lab material, handbooks, cd-roms, interim tests, exercises, examples of exam questions, set of instruments, applets, videos, articles, schemes, concept binders, protocols, etc.ObjectivesStudent CharacteristicsLearning ActivitiesLearning EnvironmentEvaluationSupportTeaching MethodsContentsMaterialsBy whomContextApart from teaching methods, students can also be supported by offering them study material and challenging them to become actively involved in the subject matter. Examples are: syllabi, background texts, PCs, lab material, handbooks, cd-roms, interim tests, exercises, examples of exam questions, set of instruments, applets, videos, schemes, concept binders, protocols, etc.

28Richtvraag:Maakt media het verschil?NEE

Waarom niet?Waarom besteden we zoveel geld aan computers?Wat doen we?JA

Wanneer of hoe maakt het een verschil?Waarom toont onderzoek geen verschil tussen media?Wat zijn de implicaties hiervan?ClarkWeinig bewijs dat het medium zelf, leren benvloed. Ontwerp en methode wordt verward met het medium.Aanbevelingen:Stop met het vergelijkend mediaonderzoek.Focus op goed ontwerpen.RE Clark - Educational technology research and development, 1994 - Springer

KozmaHet medium is belangrijk(soms).Wat zijn de voordelen van boeken?Wat zijn de voordelen van televisie?Wat zijn de voordelen van computers?Wat zijn de voordelen van multimedia?RB Kozma - Educational Technology Research and Development, 1994 - Springer

Tot slot

Een zeer specifieke omschrijving van wat de right tool for the job is, vergemakkelijkt je zoektocht aanzienlijk!Blended Learning, Afstandsonderwijs, etc.Achtergrondinformatie

Ruiz, J. G., M. J. Mintzer, et al. (2006). "The impact of e-learning in medical education." Academic medicine 81(3): 207.

Garrison, D. R. and H. Kanuka (2004). "Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education." The internet and higher education 7(2): 95-105.

Osguthorpe, R. T. and C. R. Graham (2003). "Blended Learning Environments: Definitions and Directions." Quarterly Review of Distance Education 4(3): 227-233.

Singh, H. (2003). "Building effective blended learning programs." EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY-SADDLE BROOK THEN ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS NJ- 43(6): 51-54.

Rovai, A. P. and H. Jordan (2004). "Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses." The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 5(2).

Oliver, M. and K. Trigwell (2005). "Can'Blended Learning'Be Redeemed?" E-learning and Digital Media 2(1): 17-26.

Bernard, R. M., P. C. Abrami, et al. (2004). "How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature." Review of educational research 74(3): 379-439.

Vragen?E-mail: [email protected]: @Stijn_Van_LaerFacebook: Stijn Van Laer