NC Programming

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©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Numerical Control Sections: 1. Fundamentals of NC Technology 2. Computer Numerical Control 3. DNC 4. Applications of NC 5. Engineering Analysis of NC Positioning Systems 6. NC Part Programming
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Transcript of NC Programming

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Numerical ControlSections:Fundamentals of NC TechnologyComputer Numerical ControlDNCApplications of NCEngineering Analysis of NC Positioning SystemsNC Part Programming

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Numerical Control (NC) DefinedForm of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a machine tool or other equipment are controlled by a program(through punched tape) containing coded alphanumeric data.The alphanumeric data represent relative positions between a work-head (e.g., cutting tool) and a work-part.When the current job is completed, a new program can be entered for the next job.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Punched tape

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Basic Components of an NC SystemProgram of instructionsPart program in machining

    Machine control unitControls the process

    Processing equipmentPerforms the process

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Basic Components of an NC System

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 1.Program:Is a set of detailed step by step command that direct the action of the processing equipment.A person who prepare the program is called part programmer.Individual commandrefer position of cutting tool relative to w/p.Older days the part program was punched in 1 inch wide punched tape.But now, magnetic tape, diskettes and electronic transfer .2.Machine control unit:Is a micro computer and related control hardware that stores the program of instruction and execute it by converting each command into mechanical action.

  • The term CNC is used that all MCU are based on computer technology.MCU includes control system software, calculation algorithm, and translation software.3.Processing equipment:That perform the actual productive work(e.g.machining).Its operation directed by MCU.The processing equipment consist of worktable, and spindle as well as motor and controls to drive them.NC coordinate system:First define standard axis system(x,y,z), three rotational axis(a,b,c).In most m/c application x,y axis are used to move and position the work table. And z axis for controlling the tool movement.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. NC Coordinate SystemsFor flat and prismatic (block-like) partsMilling and drilling operationsConventional Cartesian coordinate systemRotational axes about each linear axisRight hand rule

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Coordinate Axis System for Flat and Prismatic Parts

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. NC Coordinate SystemsFor rotational parts:Turning operationsConventional Cartesian coordinate system, but only x- and z-axesy-axis not needed in turning

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Coordinate Axis System for Rotational Parts

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Motion Control SystemsPoint-to-Point systemsAlso called position systemsSystem moves to a location and performs an operation at that location (e.g., drilling)Also applicable in robotics

    Continuous path systems Also called contouring(when continuous path control is used for simultaneous control of two or more axes) systems in machiningSystem performs an operation during movement (e.g., milling and turning)

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Point-To-Point Control in NCDrilling of Three Holes in Flat Plate

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Continuous Path Control in NCProfile Milling of Part Outline

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Interpolation MethodsLinear interpolationStraight line between two points in space

    Circular interpolationCircular arc defined by starting point, end point, center or radius, and direction

    Helical interpolationCircular plus linear motion

    Parabolic and cubic interpolationFree form curves using higher order equations

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Circular InterpolationApproximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments, where tolerance is defined on only the inside of the nominal curve

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Circular InterpolationApproximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments, where tolerance is defined on only the outside of the nominal curve

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Circular InterpolationApproximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments, where tolerance is defined on both the inside and outside of the nominal curve

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Absolute and Incremental PositioningAnother aspect of motion control is concern with whether position are defined relative to the origin or relative to previous location of the tool.Absolute positioningLocations defined relative to origin of axis system

    Incremental positioningLocations defined relative to previous positionExample: drilling

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Absolute vs. Incremental PositioningThe workhead is presently at point (20, 20) and is to be moved to point (40, 50) In absolute positioning, the move is specified by x = 40, y = 50 In incremental positioning, the move is specified by x = 20, y = 30.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Additional FeaturesCNC is defined as an NC system whose MCU is based on micro computer rather than on a hard wired controller.Features of CNC:Storage of more than one part programVarious forms of program input(punched,magnetic,floppy diskettes,RS 232 communication)Program editing at the machine toolFixed cycles and programming subroutinesInterpolationAcceleration and deceleration computationsCommunications interfaceDiagnosticsmalfunction sign

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Machine control unit for CNCThe MCU consists of the following components and subsystems:

    (I) central processing unit(2) memory(3) l/O interface(4) controls for machine tool axes and spindle speed. And(5)sequence controls for other machine tool functions.

    These subsystems are interconnected by means of a system bus. which communicates data and signals among the components of network. indicated in the figure,2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Central Processing UnitThe central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the MCU. It manages the other components in the MCU based on software contained in main memory.The CPU can be divided into three sections:

    (1) control section, (2) arithmetic-logic unit, and (3) immediate access memory.control section retrieves commands and data from memory and generates signals to activate other components in the MCU. In short, it sequences. coordinates. and regulates all of the activities of the MCU computer.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) consists of the circuitry to perform various calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication), counting. and logical functions required by software residing in memory.

    Immediate access memory provides a temporary storage for data being processed by the CPU. It is connected to main memory by means of the system data bus.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Configuration of CNC Machine Control Unit

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. DNCDirect numerical control (DNC) control of multiple machine tools by a single (mainframe) computer through direct connection and in real time1960s technologyTwo way communicationDistributed numerical control (DNC) network consisting of central computer connected to machine tool MCUs, which are CNCPresent technologyTwo way communication

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. General Configuration of a Direct Numerical Control SystemConnection to MCU is behind the tape reader (BTR). In distributed NC, entire programs are downloaded to each MCU, which is CNC rather than conventional NC

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Distributed Numerical Control ConfigurationsSwitching network

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Distributed Numerical Control ConfigurationsLocal area network (LAN)

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Applications of NCMachine tool applications:Milling, drilling, turning, boring, grindingMachining centers(almost any CNC milling and drilling machine that includes an automatic tool changer and a table that clamps the workpiece in place), turning centers, mill-turn centersPunch presses, thermal cutting machines, etc.Other NC applications:Component insertion machines in electronicsDrafting machines (x-y plotters)Coordinate measuring machinesTape laying machines for polymer compositesFilament winding machines for polymer composites

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Automatic insertion m/c Coordinate measuring m/c

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Common NC Machining Operations

    Turning

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Common NC Machining Operations

    Milling Drilling

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. CNC Horizontal Milling Machine

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. NC Application Characteristics (Machining) Where NC is most appropriate:Batch productionRepeat ordersComplex part geometriesMuch metal needs to be removed from the starting workpartMany separate machining operations on the partThe part is expensive

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Advantages of NCNonproductive time is reduced(e.g.set up time)Greater accuracy and repeatabilityLower scrap ratesInspection requirements are reducedMore complex part geometries are possibleEngineering changes are easier to makeSimpler fixturesShorter lead timesReduce parts inventory and less floor spaceOperator skill-level requirements are reduced

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Disadvantages of NCHigher investment costCNC machines are more expensiveHigher maintenance effortCNC machines are more technologically sophisticatedPart programming issuesNeed for skilled programmersTime investment for each new part

    Higher utilization is required

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. NC Positioning System

    Typical motor and leadscrew arrangement in an NC positioning system for one linear axisFor x-y capability, the apparatus would be piggybacked on top of a second perpendicular axis

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Analysis of Positioning NC SystemsTwo types of NC positioning systems:

    Open-loop - no feedback to verify that the actual position achieved is the desired positionClosed-loop - uses feedback measurements to confirm that the final position is the specified positionPrecision in NC positioning - three measures:

    Control resolutionAccuracyRepeatability

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Open-Loop Motion Control System

    Operates without verifying that the actual position achieved in the move is the desired position

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Where -step angle (degrees), and n = the number of step angles for the motor, which must be an integer.An open-loop positioning system typically uses a stepping motor to rotate the leadscrew.A stepping motor is driven by a series of electrical pulses, which are generated by the MCUin an NC system. Each pulse causes the motor to rotate a fraction of one revolution. calledthe step angle. The possible step angles must be consistent with the following relationship:The angle through which the motor shaft rotates is given by

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Closed-Loop Motion Control System

    Uses feedback measurements to confirm that the final position of the worktable is the location specified in the program

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Optical Encoder

    Device for measuring rotational position and speedCommon feedback sensor for closed-loop NC control

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Precision in NC PositioningThree measures of precision:Control resolution - distance separating two adjacent addressable points in the axis movementAccuracy - maximum possible error that can occur between the desired target point and the actual position taken by the systemRepeatability - defined as 3 of the mechanical error distribution associated with the axis

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Definitions of Control Resolution, Accuracy, and Repeatability

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. NC Part ProgrammingNC part programming consists of planning and documenting the sequence of processing steps to be performed on an NC machine. The part programmer must have a knowledge of machining (or other processing technology for which the NC machine is designed) as well as geometry and trigonometry.The documentation portion of par! programming involves the input medium used to transmit the program of instructions to the NC machine control unit (MCU).The traditional input medium dating back to the first NC machines in the 1950s is l-inch wide punched rape. More recently the use of magnetic tape and floppy disks have been used for NC due to their much higher data density.Part programming can he accomplished using a variety of procedures ranging from highly manual to highly automated methods.

    Manual part programmingComputer-assisted part programmingPart programming using CAD/CAMManual data input

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 1.Manual Part ProgrammingIn manual part programming, the programmer prepares the NC code using the low-level machine language previously described.The coding system is based on binary numbersThis coding is the low level machine language that can be understood by the MCU.Whenever higher level languages are used , such as APT, the statements in the program are converted to this basic codeNC uses a combination of the binary and decimal number system, called BCD system.

    In this coding scheme , each of the ten digits (0-9) in the decimal system is coded as a four digit binary number, and these binary number are added in sequence as in the decimal number system.Conversion of the ten digits in the decimal system into binary numbers Exe: decimal value 1250 would be coded in BCDNumber sequence binary number decimal valueFirst 0001 1000Second 0010 200Third 0101 50Fourth 0000 0Sum1250

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Binary Coded Decimal SystemEach of the ten digits in decimal system is coded with four-digit binary numberThe binary numbers are added to give the valueBCD is compatible with 8 bits across tape format, the original storage medium for NC part programsEight bits can also be used for letters and symbols

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Creating Instructions for NCBit - 0 or 1 = absence or presence of hole in the tapeCharacter - row of bits across the tapeWord - sequence of characters (e.g., y-axis position)Block - collection of words to form one complete instructionPart program - sequence of instructions (blocks)

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Block FormatOrganization of words within a block in NC part programAlso known as tape format because the original formats were designed for punched tapeWord address format - used on all modern CNC controllersUses a letter prefix to identify each type of wordSpaces to separate words within the blockAllows any order of words in a blockWords can be omitted if their values do not change from the previous block

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Types of WordsN - sequence number prefixG - preparatory wordsExample: G00 = PTP rapid traverse move

    X, Y, Z - prefixes for x, y, and z-axesF - feed rate prefixS - spindle speedT - tool selectionM - miscellaneous commandExample: M07 = turn cutting fluid on

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Example: Word Address FormatN001 G00 X07000 Y03000 M03N002 Y06000

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Issues in Manual Part ProgrammingAdequate for simple jobs, e.g., PTP drillingLinear interpolation

    G01 G94 X050.0 Y086.5 Z100.0 F40 S800Circular interpolation

    G02 G17 X088.0 Y040.0 R028.0 F30Cutter offset

    G42 G01 X100.0 Y040.0 D05

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • Common Format of a BlockSequence #Preparatory FunctionDimension WordsFeed RateSpindle FunctionTool FunctionMisc. FunctionN50G90 G01X1.40Y2.25F10S1500T01M03Individual Words

  • Word Address 1N Sequence or line numberA tag that identifies the beginning of a block of code. It is used by operators to locate specific lines of a program when entering data or verifying the program operation.

    G Preparatory functionG words specify the mode in which the milling machine is to move along its programmed axes.

  • Reserved Code Words WorksheetN Sequence or line numberG Preparatory function

    Dimension Words:X Y Z

  • Word Address 2Dimension WordsX Distance or position in X directionY Distance or position in Y directionZ Distance or position in Z direction

    M Miscellaneous functionsM words specify CNC machine functions not related to dimensions or axial movements.

  • Word Address 3F Feed rate (inches per minute or millimeters per minute)Rate at which cutting tool moves along an axis.

    S Spindle speed (rpm revolutions per minute)Controls spindle rotation speed.

    T Tool numberSpecifies tool to be selected.

  • Word Address 4I Circular cutting reference for x axis

    J Circular cutting reference for y axis

    K Circular cutting reference for z axis

  • G WordG words or codes tell the machine to perform certain functions. Most G words are modal which means they remain in effect until replaced by another modal G code.

  • Common G CodesG00 Rapid positioning modeTool is moved along the shortest route to programmed X,Y,Z position. Usually NOT used for cutting.G01 Linear Interpolation mode Tool is moved along a straight-line path at programmed rate of speed.

    G02 Circular motion clockwise (cw)G03 Circular motion counter clockwise (ccw)

  • Common G Codes, con.,G17 XY planeG18 XZ planeG19 YZ planeG20 Inch ModeG21 Metric ModeG28 Return to axis machine Zero (Home)

  • G Codes: G90, G91G90 Absolute Coordinate ReferenceReferences the next position from an absolute zero point which is set once for the entire program.

    G91 Incremental Coordinate ReferenceReferences the next position from the previous position.

  • G Codes: Canned CyclesG80 Cancel canned cycleG81 Drilling cycleG83 Peck drilling cycleG84 Tapping cycleG85 Boring cycleG86 Boring cycle

    NOTE: A canned cycle stays in effect until cancelled by a G80.

  • Canned Cycles: G81G81 Drilling Cycle Feed to depth, rapid return

    Example of program code:N35 G81 X.500Y.500Z-1.000 R.100 F1.50N36 X1.000Y1.500N37 X1.500Y2.000N38 G80

  • Canned Cycles: G83, G84G83 Peck Drilling Cycle Feed to an intermediate depth, rapid out, rapid back to just above previous depth, feed to next depth, rapid out, repeat until reaching full depth.

    G84 Tapping CycleThis cycle creates internal threads in an existing hole. NOTE: One cannot over-ride the feed rate.

  • Canned Cycles: G85, G86G85 - Boring CycleFeed to depth, feed back out.

    G86 Boring CycleFeed to depth, rapid out.

  • G Codes: Cutter CompensationG40 Cancel cutter diameter compensation.

    G41 Cutter compensation left.

    G42 Cutter compensation right.

  • M WordM words tell the machine to perform certain machine related functions, such as: turn spindle on/off, coolant on/off, or stop/end program.

  • Common M wordsM00 Programmed pauseAutomatically stops machine until operator pushes a button to resume program.

    M01 Optional stopA stop acted upon by the machine when operator has signaled this command by pushing a button.

    M02 End of programStops program when all lines of code are completed. Must be last command in program.

  • Common M wordsM03 Turn spindle on In clockwise direction

    M04 Turn spindle on In counter clockwise direction

    M05 Stop spindleUsually used prior to tool change or at end of program.

    M06 Tool changeStops program and calls for a tool change, either automatically or manually.

  • Common M wordsM08 Turns Accessory 1 on. M09 Turns Accessory 1 off.

    M10 Turns Accessory 2 on. M11 Turns Accessory 2 off.

    M30 End of program Similar to M02 but M30 will also rewind the program. Must be last statement in program. If used, DO NOT use M02.

  • Example of CNC ProgrammingWhat Must Be Done To Drill A Hole On A CNC Machine

    *An example of creating a CNC program using a simple hole drilled on a computer numerical controlled (CNC) vertical milling machine.

  • Top ViewFront ViewTool Home1.) X & Y Rapid To Hole Position

    *In this case, we are using a simple analogy to stress how a programmer must be able to visualize a CNC programs execution. We first look at how a machinist would machine a hole in a work piece held in a vise on a milling machine. Then well show how the same operation will be performed with a CNC program.

    The machinist standing in front of the milling machine has everything they need right in front of them. They wouldnt forget something as simple as turning the spindle on before trying to drill the hole. On the other hand, a CNC programmer must typically work with nothing more than a blueprint, a pencil, a calculator, and a blank piece of paper. They must be able to visualize every motion and function of the programs execution in their minds.

  • Top ViewFront View2.) Z Axis Rapid Move Just Above Hole3.) Turn On Coolant

    4.) Turn On Spindle.100

    *

  • Top ViewFront View5.) Z Axis Feed Move to Drill Hole

    *

  • Top ViewFront View6.) Rapid Z Axis Move Out Of Hole

    *

  • Top ViewFront View9.) X&Y Axis Rapid Move Home

    7.) Turn Off Spindle8.) Turn Off Coolant

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewTool At HomeO0001N01 G20 G90 S600 M03N02 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N03 T01 H01 Z.1 M08N04 G01 Z-.75 F3.5N06 G92 X0 Y0 Z0N07 M30N05 G00 Z.1 M09Heres The CNC Program!

    *Here is the same operation (drilling a hole) performed by a CNC program. Each step will be explained.

  • Top ViewFront ViewTool At HomeO0001O0001 Number Assigned to this program

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewTool At HomeO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N005 Sequence NumberG90 Absolute Programming ModeS600 Spindle Speed set to 600 RPMM03 Spindle on in a Clockwise DirectionG20 Dimensions in inch

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0G00Rapid MotionX1.0X Coordinate 1.0 in. from ZeroY1.0Y Coordinate 1.0 in. from Zero

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08G43Tool Length CompensationH01Specifies Tool length compensationZ.1 Z Coordinate .1 in. from ZeroM08Flood Coolant On

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5G01Straight Line Cutting MotionZ-.75Z Coordinate -.75 in. from ZeroF3.5Feed Rate set to 3.5 in./min.

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5

    G00Rapid MotionZ.1Z Coordinate .1 in. from ZeroM09Coolant OffN025 G00 Z.1 M09

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5N030 G92 X0 Y0 Z0

    G92Zero Return CommandX0, Y0, Z0 X,Y,& Z Coordinates at Zero

    N025 G00 Z.1 M09

    *

  • Top ViewFront ViewO0001N005 G20 G90 S600 M03N010 G00 X1.0 Y1.0N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.5N035 M30

    N030 G92 X0 Y0 Z0N025 G00 Z.1 M09M30End of Program

    *

  • Output: NC Code - Canned Cycles

    *

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 2.Computer-Assisted Part ProgrammingManual part programming is time-consuming, tedious, and subject to human errors for complex jobsMachining instructions are written in English-like statements that are translated by the computer into the low-level machine code of the MCUAPT (Automatically Programmed Tool)The various tasks in computer-assisted part programming are divided betweenThe human part programmerThe computer

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Computer-Assisted Part Programming

    Sequence of activities in computer-assisted part programming

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Part Programmer's JobTwo main tasks of the programmer:

    Define the part geometrySpecify the tool path

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Defining Part GeometryUnderlying assumption: no matter how complex the part geometry, it is composed of basic geometric elements and mathematically defined surfacesGeometry elements are sometimes defined only for use in specifying tool pathExamples of part geometry definitions:

    P4 = POINT/35,90,0L1 = LINE/P1,P2C1 = CIRCLE/CENTER,P8,RADIUS,30

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Specifying Tool Path and Operation SequenceTool path consists of a sequence of points or connected line and arc segments, using previously defined geometry elementsPoint-to-Point command:

    GOTO/P0Continuous path command

    GOLFT/L2,TANTO,C1

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Other Functions in Computer-Assisted Part ProgrammingSpecifying cutting speeds and feed ratesDesignating cutter size (for tool offset calculations)Specifying tolerances in circular interpolationNaming the programIdentifying the machine tool

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Cutter OffsetCutter path must be offset from actual part outline by a distance equal to the cutter radius

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Computer Tasks in Computer-Assisted Part ProgrammingInput translation converts the coded instructions in the part program into computer-usable formArithmetic and cutter offset computations performs the mathematical computations to define the part surface and generate the tool path, including cutter offset compensation (CLFILE)Editing provides readable data on cutter locations and machine tool operating commands (CLDATA)Postprocessing converts CLDATA into low-level code that can be interpreted by the MCU

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 3.NC Part Programming Using CAD/CAMGeometry definitionIf the CAD/CAM system was used to define the original part geometry, no need to recreate that geometry as in APTAutomatic labeling of geometry elementsIf the CAD part data are not available, geometry must be created, as in APT, but user gets immediate visual feedback about the created geometry

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Tool Path Generation Using CAD/CAMBasic approach: enter the commands one by one (similar to APT)CAD/CAM system provides immediate graphical verification of the commandAutomatic software modules for common machining cyclesProfile millingPocket millingDrilling bolt circles

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Examples of Machining Cycles in Automated NC Programming Modules

    Pocket milling

    Contour turning

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. Examples of Machining Cycles in Automated NC Programming Modules

    Facing and shoulder facing

    Threading (external)

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

  • 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 4.Manual Data InputMachine operator does part programming at machineOperator enters program by responding to prompts and questions by systemMonitor with graphics verifies tool pathUsually for relatively simple partsIdeal for small shop that cannot afford a part programming staffTo minimize changeover time, system should allow programming of next job while current job is running

    2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

    *An example of creating a CNC program using a simple hole drilled on a computer numerical controlled (CNC) vertical milling machine.*In this case, we are using a simple analogy to stress how a programmer must be able to visualize a CNC programs execution. We first look at how a machinist would machine a hole in a work piece held in a vise on a milling machine. Then well show how the same operation will be performed with a CNC program.

    The machinist standing in front of the milling machine has everything they need right in front of them. They wouldnt forget something as simple as turning the spindle on before trying to drill the hole. On the other hand, a CNC programmer must typically work with nothing more than a blueprint, a pencil, a calculator, and a blank piece of paper. They must be able to visualize every motion and function of the programs execution in their minds.*

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    *Here is the same operation (drilling a hole) performed by a CNC program. Each step will be explained.*

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