Microbiota, passie voor poep bram luteijn

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MICROBIOOM

PASSIE VOOR POEP

homeostase

het vermogen van meercellige organismen om het interne milieu constant te houden, ondanks veranderingen in de omgeving waarin het organisme zich bevindt

microbioom

Darm microbioom: de gemeenschap van micro-organismen die ons maagdarmkanaal bevolken

Microbioom:het geheel van genetisch materiaal in deze micro-organismen

darm microbioom

Biljoenen bacterien, 10 maal zoveel cellen als het menselijk lichaamMinstens duizend verschillende soorten bacterien3 miljoen genen,150 maal zoveel als het menselijk genoom: het microbioomWeegt tot 2 kilo (lever 1,5 kilo)Darmoppervlak zo groot als een tennisveld

functies microbioom

Helpt in de vertering van bepaalde voedingsmiddelenproductie van vitamine B en KVormt een natuurlijke barriere tegen pathogene micro-organismenIn dit barriere effect speelt de interactie met het immuunsysteem een grote rol

microbioom

functioneel te beschouwen als een orgaan

maar

verworven (steriel bij geboorte) en dynamisch

symbiose/dysbiose

symbiose:het langdurig samenleven van twee organismen van verschillende soorten waarbij de samenleving voor ten minste n van de organismen gunstig of zelfs noodzakelijk is.

dysbiose:concept om een situatie van disbalans in de microbiota aan de geven waarbij de homeostase met de gastheer in het geding komt

symbiont/pathobiont

commensaalsymbiontpathobiont:een van de organismen van de microbiota, die onder bepaalde omstandigheden schade of pathologie kan berokkenen aan de gastheerpathogeen

anti- pre- en probiotica

Antibioticumdoodt bacterieenPrebioticum: voedingsbestanddeel dat de groei en expressie van bepaalde microorganismen in het maagdarmkanaal bevordertProbioticum een levend microorganisme dat na orale inname de gezondheid van de gastheer bevordert

The Haitian epidemic is probably the result of the introduction, through human activity, of a V. cholerae strain from a distant geographic source.

Conclusion: Probiotics may have a role in alleviating some of the symptoms of IBS, a condition for which currently evidence of efficacy of drug therapies is weak. However, as IBS is a condition that is chronic and usually intermittent longer term trials are recommended.

The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events.

Faecal microbiota transplantation seems efficacious and safe for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium Difficile infection. Hospitals should encourage the development of fecal transplantation programs to improve therapy of local patients

microbiota from lean or obese humans induces similar phenotypes in mice and, more remarkably, that the microbiota from lean donors can invade and reduce adiposity gain in the obese-recipient mice if the mice are fed an appropriate diet

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been associated with alterations in the composition of intestinal flora but whether these changes are causal or result of inflammation is still under dispute.

Meat and microbes.After killing a kudu, Hadza hunters eat raw meat and rub the content of the animal's stomachincluding billions of bacteriaon their arms.

J de Vrieze Science 2014;343:241-243Published by AAASMeat and microbes.After killing a kudu, Hadza hunters eat raw meat and rub the content of the animal's stomachincluding billions of bacteriaon their arms.

Fig. 1 The gut microbiota in development and disease.

J K Nicholson et al. Science 2012;336:1262-1267Published by AAASThe gut microbiota in development and disease. The influence of the gut microbiota on human health is continuous from birth to old age. The maternal microbiota may influence both the intrauterine environment and the postnatal health of the fetus. At birth, about 100 microbial species populate the colon. Early environmental factors (e.g., method of delivery), nutritional factors (e.g., breast or bottle-feeding), and epigenetic factors have been implicated in the development of a healthy gut and its microbial symbionts. Changes in gut microbial composition in early life can influence risk for developing disease later in life. During suckling, the microbial community develops rapidly; shifts in microbial diversity occur throughout childhood and adult life; and in old age, there is a decrease in the Bacteroidetes and an increase in Firmicutes species. The gut microbiota is important for maintaining normal physiology and energy production throughout life. Body temperature regulation, reproduction, and tissue growth are energy-dependent processes that may rely in part on gut microbial energy production. Extrinsic environmental factors (such as antibiotic use, diet, stress, disease, and injury) and the mammalian host genome continually influence the diversity and function of the gut microbiota with implications for human health. Disruption of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) can lead to a variety of different diseases, including (A) inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome; (B) gastric ulcers, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity and metabolic syndromes; (C) asthma, atopy, and hypertension; and (D) mood and behavior through hormone signaling (e.g., GLP-1). The gut microbiota is also important for drug metabolism and preventing the establishment of pathogenic microbes.