Kahrel - Aspects of Negation

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Aspects ot NegationAspects ot Negation:c:irxiscn rrorrscnrir+ter verkrijging van de graad van doctoraan de Lniversiteit van Amsterdam,op gezag van de Pector MagnicusProt. Dr. P.W.M. de Meijerten overstaan van een door het college van dekaneningestelde commissiein het openbaar te verdedigen in de Aula der Lniversiteitop + mei +,,o te +.o uurdoor Pieter ohannus Kahrelgeboren te AmsterdamPromotores: Prot. Dr. H. PinksterProt. Dr. S.C. Dik1ypeset in Bembo +++: by the authorPrinted by Krips Pepro, Meppel, the Netherlands1his research vas supported by the loundation tor Iinguistic Pesearch,vhich vas tunded by the Netherlands Organization tor ScienticPesearch (xvo,.I see nobody on the road, said Alice.I only vish I had such eyes, the King remarked in a trettul tone.1o be able to see Nobody'[|Who did you pass on the road the King vent on, holding out hishand to the Messenger tor some more hay.Nobody, said the Messenger.Quite right, said the King: this young lady sav him too. So otcourse Nobody valks slover than you.I do my best, the Messenger said in a sulky tone. Im surenobody valks much taster than I do'He cant do that, said the King, or else hed have been here rst.Ievis Caroll, ii.e iu 1ouoeriauo1o Simon DikPretaceSimon Dik vas the best teacher one could vish tor. I am extremelygratetul to him tor teaching me various aspects ot linguistics: not onlythe cratt itselt, such as theoretical linguistics and typology, but also ageneral attitude tovards and appreciation ot language and languages.And his students are not only taught linguistics, they get an excellentteachers training course in the process. I am also gratetul to him torsupervising the research project that led to this book. He has been aconstant source ot inspiration and encouragement. I amonly too sorrythat he did not live to see this book nished.While I vas completing this thesis, Simon Dik tell seriously ill andvas no longer able to supervise the last stages ot this book. I am verygratetul toHarmPinkster tor taking over the taskot supervisor. He readthroughthe manuscript several times andgave comments vhichturnedout to be a signicant improvement.I am also very gratetul to my vite, Anna Sievierska. 1his book hasbeen an excercise in patience tor her almost as much as it has been torothers. But I also vish to thank her tor encouraging me to nish thisproject, tor reading the rst dratts and improving both its contents andits style.Over the years, I have presented parts ot this book during a numberot talks and have beneted trom comments trom several ot people. Ivant tosingle out here ohanvan der Auvera, GiulianoBernini, Mach-telt Bolkestein, William Crott, Osten Dahl, Matthev Dryer, MartinHaspelmath, Kees Hengeveld, Simonvande Kerke, ChristianIehmann,IachlanMackenzie, YaronMatras, Pieter Muysken, anPijkho, IeonStassen and Co Vet. I also vant to thank the members ot the lunctionalGrammar vork groups, vho commented on talks I did tor that torum.Anumber ot people have helped me interpret various language dataand provided me vith additional material vhen I could not nd datain descriptive grammars vhich untortunately vas rather otten the case.I vish to thank Peter Bakker (Cree,, Sandra Bertocchi (Italian,,Hans denBesten(Nama,, Martine Cuvulay (Arabic,, Gerrit Dimmen-daal (1urkana,, Casper de Groot (Hungarian,, Katya Gruzdeva (Gilyak,,viii Irefa.ethe late Sie Ing Djiang (Mandarin, Indonesian,, Iars Kristoersen(WestGreenlandic,, Pieter Muysken(Quechua,, Igor Nedyalkov(Chuckchi,Lvenki, Ket,, Ger Peesink (Lsan,, Arie Spruit (Abkhaz,, 1onjes Veen-stra (Saramaccan, and eroen Wiedenhot (Mandarin,. 1he author canbe reached at p.kahreiiau.aster.a..uk.ContentsAbbreviations and conventions xi1ables, gures and maps xiii1 Introduction 1+.+ 1he traditional approach +.: 1ypological adequacy o+. A note on terminology ,: Negation in Iunctional Grammar 1:.+ 1he structure ot lunctional Grammar +:.+.+ Clause Structure +:.+.: 1erms +o:.: Negation in rt +;:.:.+ Predicate negation +:.:.: Predicational and propositional negation +:.:. Illocutionary negation :::. 1erm negation ::..+ 1erm quantication ::..: 1erm negation as zero quantication : A typology ot term negation .+ Outline ot the typology o.+.+ 1ype +: neg plus indenite ,.+.: 1ype :: neg plus special indenite .+. 1ype : zero-quantication o.+. 1ype : neg plus zero-quantication ;.+. 1ype : Lxistential construction :.: Multiple types . Indeniteness o:x Couteuts| 1he negative element o.+ 1he categorial status ot xrt ;o.: Multiple particle negatives ;o.:.+ Quechua ;,.:.: Maparayi +.:. Babungo .:. Arabic .:. Navaho o.:.o Dutch and Basque ;.:.; Negation and locus ,.:. Conclusion ,o 1erm negation and language typology .+ 1he sample ,.+.+ Classication ot the languages ,.+.: Sample design +oo.+. Potential sources ot bias +o.: Areal and genetic distribution +oo. Correlations vith other aspects ot the grammar ++,o Conclusion 1:Appendix +:,Peterences +:Subject index +oIanguage index +:Name index +Abbreviations and conventionsAbbreviationsMost ot the abbreviations used in the text are listed belov. Idiosyncraticabbreviations are explained vhere they occur.:is absolutive:cc accusative:x+ anterior:sr aspect:ut augment:ux auxiliaryci classiercoii collectivecoxc concessivecoxx connectivecor copulai:+ dativeirci declarativeii direct objectrxci encliticrx existentialrx+ extensiverc tree choice particlerrx temininerorx tormative verb prexru+ tuturetrx genitiven:i habitualixxr:s+ immediate pastixr imperativeixrr impertectiveixirr indeniteixiic indicativeixr innitiveix+r intransitiveioc locativex:sc masculinex neuterxrt negativexox nominativexoxizr nominalizerxoxr non-tactualxoxrix nonnitexoxrrr non-reterentialoiJ objectr:r+ partitiver:s+ pastrrrr pertectiveri pluralrxrt past negativeross possessiverr:r+ past participlerrrs presentrrr+ pretiriter+ci particle_ question particlerrcrx+r:s+ recent pastrri relativers relativized subjects subjectst singularss same subjectsuiJ subject+xs tense+r:xs transitivexii ||re:iatious auo .ou:eutiousEamplesLxample sentences are presented as I tound them in the sources. 1heinterlinear glosses and abbreviations used have been streamlined tocomply as much as possible vith Iehmann (+,,. In the event that no or incomplete interlinear glosses vere given by the source, I havereconstructed them as best as possible.Sources are givenvitheachexample sentence. Onrst mention, thelanguage name and the tull reterence are given. lurther examples tromthe same source have only the page reterence atter the translation ot theexample.Language namesIanguages are classied genetically according to Puhlen (+,;,, vithone exception, namely the organizationot vhat Puhlencalls Caucasian(see p. ,,. Ianguage names are spelled as they are in Puhlen. Whenan author uses a dierent name, the name variant used by Puhlen isadopted here tor consistencys sake. Variant names have been checkedvith Grimes (+,,. I use the group names in Puhlen, vith one excep-tion: I vill use Pomance rather than Puhlens name Italic. See Chap-ter tor discussion.1ables, gures and maps1ables+. Distribution ot the types ;:. Sample languages classied . lunction ot negative elements per language ;+. Number ot negative elements in each language ;,. Non-tactual environments ,+;. Sample languages listed by genetic aliation ,;. Distribution ot languages across continents +o:,. Distribution ot term negation types across continents +o+o. Distribution ot term negation types relative to each type +o++. Distribution ot the term negation types across Nicholsmacro-areas +o,+:. 1ypological characteristics ot languages using more than one termnegation type +o,+. Distribution ot term negation types in Bernini and Pamatssample ++++. Distribution ot term negation types in Haspelmaths sample +++. Distinct negative markers in imperatives across continents(Dryers areas, ++o+o. Distinct negative markers in imperatives across continents (Nicholsareas, +++;. Distribution ot vord order types across continents +:o+. Distribution ot term negation types across vord order types +:++,. Multiple term negation per vord order type +:::o. Distribution ot zero quantication versus other types +:oIigures+. 1he clause structure +:. Ievels and variables +. Crotts types ;. 1he structure ot Amerind +o+. 1he structure ot Niger-Kordotanian +o:o. Distribution ot basic vord order types +:oxiv ||re:iatious auo .ou:eutiousMaps+. Iocation ot the sample languages ,o,;:. Iocation ot the term negation types +o;. Ianguages using alternative term negation strategies ++o. Distribution in Bernini and Pamats sample ++:. Distribution ot languages using dierent negative elementsin negative declaratives and negative imperatives ++;1 Introduction1his study vill be concerned vith the analysis ot negative sentencesvhich in Lnglish are expressed by negative indenite torms such as uox, uoue of the x, uo|ooy and uothiu. Although negation in language hasbeen investigated extensively both in philosophy and linguistics, thistype ot negation, vhich I vill somevhat ideosyncratically call +rrxxrt:+iox (see sections +. and:..,, has not. Consequently, it is ottenassumed that the analyses adopted tor other torms ot negation holdequally vell tor the expression ot uothiu, etcetera. 1his, hovever, ishighly questionable, particularly it the cross-linguistic realizations ot thephenomenon under consideration are taken into account.1his book oers precisely such a cross-linguistic perspective. 1heonly tvo vorks that also deal extensively vith this issue are Bernini andPamat (+,,:, and Haspelmath (