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Proceedings of the National Workshop on

INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONEMANAGEMENT IN MOZAMBIQUE

Proceedings of the National Workshop on

INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT IN MOZAMBIQUE

Inhaca Island and Maputo, Mozambique, May 5-10, 1996

Published byThe World BankLand, Water and Natural Habitats DivisionEnvironmental Department

SidaMarine Science ProgramDepartment for Research Cooperation, SAREC

ISBN 91-586-6068-2

EditorsCarl Gustaf LundinOlof Linden

Cover by Lena WennerstenCover photographs by C. G. LundinProduced by Jessica Lindstrom Battle, Ord & Vetande AB, Uppsala 1997Layout by Tryckfaktorn AB, Hans Melchersson, StockholmPrinted by Graphic System 1997

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD 5

STATUS OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF MOZAMBIQUE 7Alfredo Massinga and John Hatton

CASE STUDIES

Territorial Planning of the Coastal Zone of Mozambique - Methodology 69Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs - MICOA

Mecufi Coastal Zone Management Project 76Alfredo Massinga

Integrated Administration of the Coastal Zone of the Island of Inhaca 90Domingos Z. Gove

Environmental Profile of the Bazaruto Archipelago 99Samiro Magane

Tourism, Land Use and Conflicts. Bilene - Xai-Xai - Chongoene 108John Hatton, Custodio Voabil and Arlindo Manj'ate

Beira - Main Environmental Problems and Potential Solutions 123Hassan

Environmental Profile of the Island of Mocambique 131Rui Fonseca

THE ARUSHA RESOLUTION 139

THE SEYCHELLES CONFERENCE STATEMENT 143

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 147

FOREWORD

Eastern Africa and the island states of the Western Indian Ocean is a diverse region- culturally, politically and ecologically. The region consists of the mainland statesSomalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique and the island states Madagascar, theComoros, Mauritius, La Reunion and the Seychelles. Approximately 30 to 35million people live in the coastal areas of the region, and the shoreline extends adistance of some 11 000 kilometres. Widespread poverty, together with rapidpopulation growth and inappropriate or poorly planned development, have resul-ted in environmental degradation and resource depletion in many areas along thecoast. This has resulted in increasing conflicts among coastal inhabitants.

To address issues of coastal destruction and resource overuse, better methods forenvironmental and natural resources management are needed. Such methods andprinciples have already been used in other parts of the world, and are generallyreferred to as Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) or Integrated CoastalArea Management (ICAM). These methods were one of the topics at the EarthSummit (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Chapter 17 of Agenda 21). Further-more, the governments of the region agreed to adopt and implement the concept ofICZM in their countries at the Policy Conference on Integrated Coastal ZoneManagement in Eastern Africa including Island States, held in Arusha, Tanzania, inApril 1993 (The Arusha Resolution on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, seepage XX of this volume). In order to reassess the successes and failures of theArusha Resolution, the governments of the region met again in October 1996 in theSeychelles. The outcome of that meeting was an agreement on further actions toimprove the situation (The Seychelles Conference Statement, see page XY of thisvolume). To address the issues of coastal management in Eastern Africa, a jointprogram was initiated between the Swedish Government through Sida (the Swe-dish International Development Cooperation Agency') and the Environment De-partment, Land, Water and Natural Habitats Division at the World Bank. Theobjective of the program is to initiate a national process in the countries of theregion, to improve the management of the coastal areas and assist in capacitybuilding in this field.

One way of increasing awareness of the need for improved coastal management atthe political and executive level in the countries of the region, is to arrange seminarsand workshops, where policy-makers, heads of government agencies and others

The program was originally started by SAREC (the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperationwith Developing Countries). In 1995, SAREC merged with several other Swedish agencies toform Sida.

5

can meet to discuss the issues. At these workshops, with the assistance of internatio-nal experts, various national experts, interest groups and local stakeholders areinvited to discuss, exchange information and apply the concepts of IntegratedCoastal Zone Management in a local setting. An example of the outcome of theseworkshops is the inclusion of coastal management programs in national andenvironmental action plans, and making them part of national investment priorities.Another outcome is the establishment of pilot activities for the implementation ofICZM. A series of workshops are now being held in Eastern Africa and the islandstates of the Western Indian Ocean. So far, national workshops have been carriedout in the Seychelles, Tanzania, Madagascar and Mozambique. This volume pre-sents the proceedings of the fourth national workshop, which was held on InhacaIsland and in Maputo, Mozambique.

On behalf of Sida and the World Bank, we wish to thank the organisers, theMinistry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA) and the UniversityEduardo Mondlane, for their preparatory work which made the workshop asuccess. One proof of this success is the fact that several of the recommendationsfrom the workshop are presently being implemented by MICOA and otherconcerned parties.

Carl Gustaf Lundin Anders GranlundWorld Bank SidaEnvironment Department Department for Research Cooperation

6

STATUS OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF MOZAMBIQUE

ALFREDO MASSINGA AND JOHN HATTON

Introduction

BackgroundMozambique is situated between latitudes 10020'S and 2650'S. Its coastline ofca. 2 770 km is characterised by a wide diversity of habitats, including sandybeaches, coral reefs, estuarine systems, bays, mangroves and seagrass beds. Thecoast is the country's most valuable natural resource. Coastal resources - fisheries,agriculture, tourism and forestry - contribute significantly to the national income,and provide social and economic benefits to an estimated two-thirds of the popula-tion. These resources are allocated and managed on a sectoral basis with littlecoordination between the sectors - especially in the coastal areas, where both landand marine resources are involved. Consequently, there are overlaps and gaps withregards to institutional roles, jurisdictional competence, powers of enforcementetc., resulting in haphazard and uncontrolled development along much of thecoastline.

The National Environmental Management Plan (NEMP), approved by the Go-vernment of Mozambique and currently under review, highlights "the managementand use of the coast and coastal marine resources" as one of three critical areaswarranting special attention. Hopefully, the integrated management and sustaina-ble development of Mozambique's coastal zone may be achieved once the NEMP isimplemented.

Coastal RegionsThe Mozambique coast is a compound shoreline and can be divided into three mainnatural regions with one additional type of limited occurrence (Fig. 1).

Coral Coast

The northernmost section, extending about 770 km from the Rovuma River in thenorth to the Primeiro/Segundo Archipelago in the south (1720'S), is essentially acoral coast. These reef-forming corals are classified as hermatypic, requiring a meanannual sea temperature of about 21C. Corals also occur at intervals offshore fromBazaruto Island southward to South Africa, but these are found in relatively deeperwaters than the reef corals and play little part in modifying the direct action of thesea and storms. The southern limit for shallow water fringing coral is reported fromInhaca Island, at latitude 26S.

7

Swamp Coast

The central section of Mozambique, ca. 978 km between Angoche (1614'S) andBazaruto Island (2110'S), is classified as a swamp coast, with simple linear toarched beaches, swamps and estuaries. The sea along this coast is shallow and thewaves are high but short, disturbing the bottom materials close to the beach; this isone of the causes of the high turbidity found in this region. Twenty-four riversdischarge into the Indian Ocean along this central section of the coast, each with anestuary supporting well established mangrove swamps. The beaches between Peba-ne and the Zambezi River mouth are of black sand and consequently fairly rich inthe minerals ilmenite and rutile. The shore is characterised by low dunes known aschenie