Energy Confrence

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    Water-EnergyInteractionsDr Fayyaz Ali Memon

    Centre for Water Systems. University of Exeter

    United Kingdom

    2nd Int. Conf. on Energy, Environment & Sustainable Development (EESD-2012)

    27-29 Feb. 2012, MUET - Pakistan

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    Outline

    Water implications for energy generation

    Potential solutions

    Energy/carbon implications forwater services Energy consumption reduction through WDM

    Wastewater a liability or resource

    Water-Energy-Food nexus

    Key messages

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    Is it a system capacity issue?

    Is it a management/resource

    issue? Is it growth in demand?

    Or

    Bit of everything?

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    Growth in Energy demand

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    (2008)

    Energy flows in the global electricity (TWh)

    Is

    itint

    elligent

    us

    e

    ofre

    source..

    ?

    Carbon implications..!!

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    CO2 emissions by sector

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    Climate

    change

    implications!!!

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    climate

    waterenergy

    demand

    carbon

    variability

    mitigation

    mitigation

    adaptation

    demand mitigation

    Energy-water-climate nexus

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    Global electricity generation by resource

    Electricitygenera

    tion(TWh)

    Source: IEA Statistics

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    Water use in pulverised coal fired

    power plants

    Zhai et al (2011)

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    Water footprint for typical CFPPs using

    different types of boilers

    Zhai et al (2011)

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    Coal fired power plants vulnerable to

    water / supply demand

    Near 340 plants in 43 states are vulnerable

    Source: US department of Energy

    DOE/NETL-2010/1429

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    Water consumption to generate power

    from different fuel sources

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    Gerbens-Leenes, et al (2010).

    Water footprint of crops

    providing bio energy fuels

    (ethanol and bio diesel)

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    ET = embodied for ethanol transportation from field to pump (field-to-pump

    water use of 1 L of ethanol to be between 263 and 784 L)

    Dominguez faus et al (2009)

    Resource footprint for producing 1 L of ethanol

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    Water consumption to generate power

    from different technologies

    http://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-

    make-electricity

    This may be carbon friendly but not water efficient

    http://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricityhttp://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/how-much-water-does-it-take-to-make-electricity
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    Embodied water in

    transportation of

    fuels

    Scown et al (2011)

    Water is also needed to transport energy/fuels

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    Marine renewable energy

    Wave energy hinged contour device

    buoyant moored device

    overtopping device

    Tidal energy tidal flow turbines

    tidal barrages

    Ocean thermal energy

    UK Govt . to push for W&T

    energy , as it could meet 1/5th

    of energy needs

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    Water : Energy Nexusboth challenges must be addressed together

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    Energy consumption in water

    production

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    Price of bottled water

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    Bottled water consumption by region

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    Bottled water energy implications Producing the bottles for American consumption

    required the equivalent of more than 17 million

    barrels of oil, not including the energy for

    transportation

    Bottling water produce more than 2.5 million tonsof carbon dioxide

    It takes 3 liters of waterto produce 1 liter of

    bottled water

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    CO2 emissions by sector

    World Development Report (2010)

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    Medium to high energy uses in

    water supplyProcess/operation Typical energy use Factors influencing

    use

    High lift pumping 250 500 kWh/Ml Head, pump efficiency

    Abstraction pumping Up to 250 kWh/Ml Head, pump efficiency,

    depth of water table

    Ozonation 60 kWh/Ml Ozone dose

    DAF 25 kWh/Ml Saturator pump

    efficiency, recycle flow,

    pressure

    Membranes 25 kWh/Ml Type of membrane,

    pump efficiency

    UV 5-40 kWh/Ml UV Dose

    Pumping..!!!

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    Tool generated composite strategies

    (water + energy use)

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    WDM optionsWater saving options

    Leakage control

    Metering

    Grey water recycling

    Rainwater harvesting

    User behaviour

    Water saving fixtures

    Displacement devices

    Low flush toilets Low flow taps

    Water efficient showers and baths

    Water efficient white goods

    C b t i t d ith WDM

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    Carbon cost associated with WDM

    options

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    RWH energy consumption

    Because of high capacity pumps...... EA (2010)

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    Eco-Compac system

    Exeter has developed refined

    methods to quantify actual

    energy consumption based

    on real consumption

    UVETOTO EPEEE ))1(( .22

    ))1(( .22 ETOT PEEE

    Pumping

    UV disinfection

    Ward et al (2012)

    Energy implications comparison of Eco-Comapc with

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    Energy implications comparison of Eco Comapc with

    mains supply

    30 years

    analysis

    60 years

    analysis

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    Water as a source for Energy - Innovations

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    1. Groundwater, in some cases, contains methane (up

    to 50 mg/lit.) and this can be extracted and used as

    energy source as is happening in the Netherlands

    1. Nitrogen removal from wastewater is necessary.

    This can be achieved using microbial fuel cells

    which have been found to produce electricity.

    2. Source separation of urine and excreta and

    processing could reduce the need for syntheticfertilisers

    3. Micro-Hydro Turbines Embedded in mains water

    distribution pipes as happening in NY

    4. Direct use of sea water for toilet flushing and

    resulting savewater could be treated withprocesses (e.g. SANI) which require least amount of

    energy (e.g. In Hong Kong)

    5. Fuel from algae

    Water as a source for Energy - Innovations

    There are numerous

    possibilities

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    ps

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    G

    lobalavera

    gewaterfootprintof

    keycro

    (m3/ton)

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    Demand for meat

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    The water-energy-food nexus a perfect storm (Prof

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    The water energy food nexus a perfect storm (Prof

    John Beddington, 2009)

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