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  • 8/3/2019 EDU 3103 w10


    Edu 3103 Learning and

    the LearnerWeek 10

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    1. Definition, Types and Principles of teachingapproaches

    - Inductive, Deductive, Integrative, Eclectic- Thematic

    2. Definition, Types & Principles of teachingstrategies

    - Teacher-centred

    - Pupil - centred

    - Resource-based

    - Task/Activity-based

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    Teaching Frame

    There are 4 levelsnamely models,approaches, strategies,

    methods andtechniques

    Methods & techniques




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    Teaching models

    Frames or guides that can be made as apoint to explain the teaching and learningprocesses that are carried in a classroom

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    Teaching Approach

    A set of assumptions based on teachingmodels, theories or principles which are tobe implemented for a class lesson with the

    aim to achieve the predetermined objectives

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    Teaching strategy

    Wisdom to choose a teaching approach aswell as the competency in organizingteaching methods and techniques for the

    implementation of a lesson based on a pre-determined teaching and learning objectives

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    Teaching methods

    An organization and application of teachingtechnique, teaching materials, teaching aidsand supplementary materials by the teacher

    with the aim of achieving the teaching andlearning objective

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    Inductive Approach

    Normally involves the activity of collecting, analyzing andinterpreting information grouped together and then arrivesat a certain concept or generalization

    A teacher usually begins the lesson by introducing a few

    specific examples that contain common attributes orcharacteristics.

    Based on the examples given, students are guided tostudy, analyze, interpret and to abstract the commoncharacteristics contained in each of the specific examplesand then derive a certain concept or generalization

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    B. Seaton (1982): A mental process wherebya student observes certain events to comeup with a generalization.



    To observe,study, ascertain,



    concept,principles, law

    Gold fish,tadpole,shark

    Use gills

    to breathe Fish and othercreatures live in

    water use Gills to breathe

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    Principles of Inductive Teaching

    Examples must be relevant and suitable

    Teacher guides students to drawconclusion.

    Teacher gives opportunity to students toobserve and analyze the examples so thatmaking generalization takes place

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    Principles of Inductive Teaching

    Teacher plans teaching activities thatincorporate specific examples to makegeneralization or conclusion.

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    Application: In Science (Magnet)

    Students are given a heap of materials

    (paper clips, eraser, plastic button, nails,money, pencil, thumb tacks, plastic ruler andmetal ruler)

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    Students are given magnet and do experimentwhich material will be attracted to the magnet.

    After the activity, students and teacher discuss on

    characteristics of the materials that are attractedto the magnet. Finally, students are asked to draw conclusion in

    sentences about their experiment

    Student will draw conclusion that magnet willattract materials made from metalTeacher finishes the lesson by emphasizing the

    generalization made in a graphic or visualpresentation

    The graphics and conclusion will help student tofocus on the lesson

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    Deductive Approach

    Formation of concept using deductive approachbegins with the concept that are already acquiredto produce a new concept by means of logical

    reasoningThis approach is also used to obtain new formula,

    principle, conclusion or generalization based onformulae, principles, laws, theorems or rules whichhave been learned

    In teaching, the DA begins using one or severalformulae, principles, laws or theorems tocomprehend, interpret or solve certain specific butrelated problems

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    Deductive method is a complex teachingmethod because students need to have a

    profound understanding and sufficientknowledge as well as the ability to selectthe relevant formulae, principles, laws,

    theorems or rules which have beenlearned so as to apply them on thespecific examples.

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    or ruleswhich have



    Application of formulae,principles, theorems

    or rules

    To derive newformulae, principles

    , theorems or rules

    Area ofrectangle= l x b

    Area ofhalf of

    rectangle = l x b2

    Area oftriangle

    =1/2 x l x b

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    Using the example of magnet, the teacher willtell that magnet can attract certain objects i.e.

    metalTeacher will explain the concept of attraction

    and pose the question : Will magnet attractpencil? Discussion will be done with some

    experiments whereby teacher gives students amagnet and ask them whether objects in theclassroom are attracted to the magnet

    At the end of the discussion, teacher and

    students draw conclusion that magnet onlyattracts metal object based on the experimentand examples in the classroom

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    Eclectic Approach

    This approach is basically an alternativecombination of inductive and deductiveapproaches used for formation of concepts,

    principles, theorems, laws, formulas ortheories

    Suitable for the classroom with students ofmixed abilities where at times, inductiveapproach works and deductive at othertimes

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    E.g. Teacher starts with examples

    followed by generalization. Teacher canend the lesson by giving examples toconsolidate laws and generalization

    (Inductive). Or teacher can start withrules or generalization followed byexamples and end by explaining aboutlaws again (deductive)

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    This approach is commonly used inteaching Mathematics and Science where

    both approaches are used alternatively toform concepts, principles, theorems, lawsor formulae which are to be used for

    application in problem-solvings

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    Inductive deductive


    3x2=6 application

    4x5=20 axb=bxa10x5=5x10


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    Inductive Deductive

    Fish ApplicationCat

    Bird Animals

    Dog with backbone(vertebrate) duck



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    Integrated Learning

    Phase 1: Describing

    Phase 2: Comparing

    Phase 3: ExplainingPhase 4: Hypothesis

    Phase 5: Making generalization

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    Integration means fusion or combinationof skills or contents from one or more

    than one subjects into another subjectIn the Primary School Integrated

    Curriculum (KBSR), teaching is done inintegration of several skills

    Example: Students are taught throughthe integration of 4 skills i.e. reading,writing, speaking and listening; content

    knowledge from certain topic can beintegrated into another subject duringthe process of learning

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    Reading skillRead &

    understanda Mathematical


    Writing skillWrite down

    thesolution steps

    Counting skillCalculatethe answer

    Verbal skill


    theanswer obtained

    Language skills Mathematic skills

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    Thematic approach

    Teaching using theme

    Theme is broken into smaller components

    Enable students to analyze, make generalization

    and apply knowledge Enable students to combine many facts under one


    Enable students to have different experience fromdifferent situation

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    Purpose of thematic approach:

    1. Strategy is students centered

    2. Based on theme3. Students active involvement in thematic


    4. Cohesiveness

    5. Skill activities are combined to increasestudents potential

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    Principles of thematic approach

    1. Theme chosen must be suitable to the

    interest , ability and experience of students2. Theme should be related to daily life of


    3. Theme should have wide scope and coversvarious fields

    4. The sequence of theme is in order/systematic

    5. Activities based on theme covers different

    fields in curriculum

    6. Development of theme should ignite ideas

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    Steps in implementation of Thematicapproach

    1. Choose 1 theme

    2. Build plan network

    3. Choose materials

    4. Plan activities

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    Teaching & Learning Strategies

    Teachers centered

    Students centered

    Resource centeredTasks@ activates centered

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    Teachers Centered Strategy

    Teacher controls all the teaching and learningactivities in the classroom

    Teaching is based on expository teaching model

    Methods of teaching: whole-class teaching,demonstration, lecture, story telling

    Teacher talks a lot; students sit quietly and listen

    a lot

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    Characteristics of Teacher-Centered Strategy:

    1. Teacher plays primary and active role;students play passive role as listeners oraudience

    2. One-way interaction and communicationbetween teacher and students

    3. Autocratic teaching style4. Teaching strategies planned according to

    teaching objectives only

    5. Emphasize only on the learning of subject

    matter and skills rather than to foster noblevalues or socio-emotional development

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    6. Emphasize on the pupils achievement intests and examination

    7. Passive interaction with very limitedsocial interaction and communicationamong pupils

    8. Emphasize on the whole classorganization, adopt whole class teachingmethod and ignore individual differences

    9 Pupils become less creative and are notencouraged to take their own initiativeto learn

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    Pupil-Centred Strategy

    Students play a primary role in the learningprocess

    Pupils are encouraged to take active part inlearning; teacher plays a facilitating role and

    guide the pupils to learn either individually orin small group

    Most of the learning time will be allotted forpupils activities

    Methods of teaching are individual learning,group activity, inquirydiscovery, discussion,brainstorming, simulation, role play andproblem solving

    h f l d

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    Characteristics of Pupil-Centered Strategy1. Students primary role in the learning process;

    teacher as facilitator guiding students to

    learn either individually or in small group2. Interaction and communication processbetween teacher and students is two-way i.e.teacher applies facilitating techniques toguide pupils to response

    3. Teacher practices democratic reaching styleand pupils are encouraged to air theiropinion thorough discussion

    4. Emphasize on the achievement on the

    learning objectives of the pupils5. Emphasize on the overall development of

    students potentials

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    6. Emphasize on the formative test to ascertainpupils weaknesses in learning

    7. Interaction process among students are manyto foster social skills and noble values

    8. It places importance in carrying out students

    activities in small groups9. Emphasizes on the organization of group

    activities according to individual difference

    10. People tend to be more innovative and

    creative and take their own initiative to learn

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    Material-Centered Strategy

    Emphasize the use of teaching and learningmaterials during the teaching and learning process

    Teaching materials used as teaching aids are

    chart, maps, specimens, model, film slides, radio,tape recorder, projector, television, video andcomputers.

    Teacher are able to present the lesson effectivelyand in an intersecting manner

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    Learning materials are material used bystudents such as text book, work sheets,printed materials, modules, laboratory

    apparatus and computer

    Teaching methods: audio-visual method usingtape recorder, projector, television and video,

    programme instructional teaching usingcomputer and software and modular teachingusing printed materials; experiential methodsusing laboratory apparatus; inquiry-discovery

    using science apparatus, demonstration usingcharts, diagram

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    Applications of materials-centered strategyinvolve teacher-centered strategy. E.g. a

    teacher may use teaching aids to demonstrateor explain a certain teaching activity

    Some of the applications of material-centeredstrategy involve students-centered strategy.

    E.g. when using teaching methods such asinquiry-discovery, problem solving or projectmethods, pupils need to use learning materialsto perform, investigate and study to carry outtheir learning activities or assignments

    Characteristics of Material-Centered

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    Characteristics of Material CenteredStrategy

    1. Teacher and students need teaching

    and learning materials to optimizeteaching and learning inside andoutside the classroom

    2. Provide opportunity for interaction andcommunication among the teacher,students and teaching aids

    3. The skills of using teaching and

    learning aids play the primary role toachieve the pre-determined objectives

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    5. Emphasizes on the overall development of thepupils potentials, especially development ofcognitive, physical, emotional and socialaspects

    6. With teaching aids, teachers will be able topresent the lesson clearly, accurately and in aninteresting manner

    7. With learning aids, pupils will be able todevelop their manipulative skills, and fosterwith positive attitude in group activities

    8. This strategy provides opportunity for

    meaningful teaching and learning experiences,whereby abstract knowledge and skills areacquired through concrete practical expereices

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    Task-Based Strategy

    Based on learning activities that are planned bythe teacher for pupils, to carry a certain task. Asthese learning activities required teaching andlearning materials, it is closely related with

    material-centered strategy as well as pupil-centered strategyTeaching methods and activities under this task-

    based strategy are role play, drama, project suchas model making, discussion such as debate and

    brainstorming, and other assignment activities