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Edu 3103 Learning and
the LearnerWeek 10

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1. Definition, Types and Principles of teachingapproaches
 Inductive, Deductive, Integrative, Eclectic Thematic
2. Definition, Types & Principles of teachingstrategies
 Teachercentred
 Pupil  centred
 Resourcebased
 Task/Activitybased

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Teaching Frame
There are 4 levelsnamely models,approaches, strategies,
methods andtechniques
Methods & techniques
strategies
approach
models

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Teaching models
Frames or guides that can be made as apoint to explain the teaching and learningprocesses that are carried in a classroom

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Teaching Approach
A set of assumptions based on teachingmodels, theories or principles which are tobe implemented for a class lesson with the
aim to achieve the predetermined objectives

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Teaching strategy
Wisdom to choose a teaching approach aswell as the competency in organizingteaching methods and techniques for the
implementation of a lesson based on a predetermined teaching and learning objectives

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Teaching methods
An organization and application of teachingtechnique, teaching materials, teaching aidsand supplementary materials by the teacher
with the aim of achieving the teaching andlearning objective

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Inductive Approach
Normally involves the activity of collecting, analyzing andinterpreting information grouped together and then arrivesat a certain concept or generalization
A teacher usually begins the lesson by introducing a few
specific examples that contain common attributes orcharacteristics.
Based on the examples given, students are guided tostudy, analyze, interpret and to abstract the commoncharacteristics contained in each of the specific examplesand then derive a certain concept or generalization

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B. Seaton (1982): A mental process wherebya student observes certain events to comeup with a generalization.
Specific
examples
To observe,study, ascertain,
interpret
Derivegeneralization,
concept,principles, law
Gold fish,tadpole,shark
Use gills
to breathe Fish and othercreatures live in
water use Gills to breathe

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Principles of Inductive Teaching
Examples must be relevant and suitable
Teacher guides students to drawconclusion.
Teacher gives opportunity to students toobserve and analyze the examples so thatmaking generalization takes place

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Principles of Inductive Teaching
Teacher plans teaching activities thatincorporate specific examples to makegeneralization or conclusion.

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Application: In Science (Magnet)
Students are given a heap of materials
(paper clips, eraser, plastic button, nails,money, pencil, thumb tacks, plastic ruler andmetal ruler)

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Students are given magnet and do experimentwhich material will be attracted to the magnet.
After the activity, students and teacher discuss on
characteristics of the materials that are attractedto the magnet. Finally, students are asked to draw conclusion in
sentences about their experiment
Student will draw conclusion that magnet willattract materials made from metalTeacher finishes the lesson by emphasizing the
generalization made in a graphic or visualpresentation
The graphics and conclusion will help student tofocus on the lesson

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Deductive Approach
Formation of concept using deductive approachbegins with the concept that are already acquiredto produce a new concept by means of logical
reasoningThis approach is also used to obtain new formula,
principle, conclusion or generalization based onformulae, principles, laws, theorems or rules whichhave been learned
In teaching, the DA begins using one or severalformulae, principles, laws or theorems tocomprehend, interpret or solve certain specific butrelated problems

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Deductive method is a complex teachingmethod because students need to have a
profound understanding and sufficientknowledge as well as the ability to selectthe relevant formulae, principles, laws,
theorems or rules which have beenlearned so as to apply them on thespecific examples.

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Formulae,principles
or ruleswhich have
beenlearned
Deductivemethod
Application of formulae,principles, theorems
or rules
To derive newformulae, principles
, theorems or rules
Area ofrectangle= l x b
Area ofhalf of
rectangle = l x b2
Area oftriangle
=1/2 x l x b

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Using the example of magnet, the teacher willtell that magnet can attract certain objects i.e.
metalTeacher will explain the concept of attraction
and pose the question : Will magnet attractpencil? Discussion will be done with some
experiments whereby teacher gives students amagnet and ask them whether objects in theclassroom are attracted to the magnet
At the end of the discussion, teacher and
students draw conclusion that magnet onlyattracts metal object based on the experimentand examples in the classroom

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Eclectic Approach
This approach is basically an alternativecombination of inductive and deductiveapproaches used for formation of concepts,
principles, theorems, laws, formulas ortheories
Suitable for the classroom with students ofmixed abilities where at times, inductiveapproach works and deductive at othertimes

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E.g. Teacher starts with examples
followed by generalization. Teacher canend the lesson by giving examples toconsolidate laws and generalization
(Inductive). Or teacher can start withrules or generalization followed byexamples and end by explaining aboutlaws again (deductive)

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This approach is commonly used inteaching Mathematics and Science where
both approaches are used alternatively toform concepts, principles, theorems, lawsor formulae which are to be used for
application in problemsolvings

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Mathematics
Inductive deductive
2x3=6
3x2=6 application
4x5=20 axb=bxa10x5=5x10
5x4=20

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Science
Inductive Deductive
Fish ApplicationCat
Bird Animals
Dog with backbone(vertebrate) duck
hen
goatcow

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Integrated Learning
Phase 1: Describing
Phase 2: Comparing
Phase 3: ExplainingPhase 4: Hypothesis
Phase 5: Making generalization

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Integration means fusion or combinationof skills or contents from one or more
than one subjects into another subjectIn the Primary School Integrated
Curriculum (KBSR), teaching is done inintegration of several skills
Example: Students are taught throughthe integration of 4 skills i.e. reading,writing, speaking and listening; content
knowledge from certain topic can beintegrated into another subject duringthe process of learning

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Reading skillRead &
understanda Mathematical
problems
Writing skillWrite down
thesolution steps
Counting skillCalculatethe answer
Verbal skill
Explainverbally
theanswer obtained
Language skills Mathematic skills

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Thematic approach
Teaching using theme
Theme is broken into smaller components
Enable students to analyze, make generalization
and apply knowledge Enable students to combine many facts under one
theme
Enable students to have different experience fromdifferent situation

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Purpose of thematic approach:
1. Strategy is students centered
2. Based on theme3. Students active involvement in thematic
teaching
4. Cohesiveness
5. Skill activities are combined to increasestudents potential

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Principles of thematic approach
1. Theme chosen must be suitable to the
interest , ability and experience of students2. Theme should be related to daily life of
students
3. Theme should have wide scope and coversvarious fields
4. The sequence of theme is in order/systematic
5. Activities based on theme covers different
fields in curriculum
6. Development of theme should ignite ideas

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Steps in implementation of Thematicapproach
1. Choose 1 theme
2. Build plan network
3. Choose materials
4. Plan activities

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Teaching & Learning Strategies
Teachers centered
Students centered
Resource centeredTasks@ activates centered

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Teachers Centered Strategy
Teacher controls all the teaching and learningactivities in the classroom
Teaching is based on expository teaching model
Methods of teaching: wholeclass teaching,demonstration, lecture, story telling
Teacher talks a lot; students sit quietly and listen
a lot

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Characteristics of TeacherCentered Strategy:
1. Teacher plays primary and active role;students play passive role as listeners oraudience
2. Oneway interaction and communicationbetween teacher and students
3. Autocratic teaching style4. Teaching strategies planned according to
teaching objectives only
5. Emphasize only on the learning of subject
matter and skills rather than to foster noblevalues or socioemotional development

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6. Emphasize on the pupils achievement intests and examination
7. Passive interaction with very limitedsocial interaction and communicationamong pupils
8. Emphasize on the whole classorganization, adopt whole class teachingmethod and ignore individual differences
9 Pupils become less creative and are notencouraged to take their own initiativeto learn

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PupilCentred Strategy
Students play a primary role in the learningprocess
Pupils are encouraged to take active part inlearning; teacher plays a facilitating role and
guide the pupils to learn either individually orin small group
Most of the learning time will be allotted forpupils activities
Methods of teaching are individual learning,group activity, inquirydiscovery, discussion,brainstorming, simulation, role play andproblem solving
h f l d

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Characteristics of PupilCentered Strategy1. Students primary role in the learning process;
teacher as facilitator guiding students to
learn either individually or in small group2. Interaction and communication processbetween teacher and students is twoway i.e.teacher applies facilitating techniques toguide pupils to response
3. Teacher practices democratic reaching styleand pupils are encouraged to air theiropinion thorough discussion
4. Emphasize on the achievement on the
learning objectives of the pupils5. Emphasize on the overall development of
students potentials

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6. Emphasize on the formative test to ascertainpupils weaknesses in learning
7. Interaction process among students are manyto foster social skills and noble values
8. It places importance in carrying out students
activities in small groups9. Emphasizes on the organization of group
activities according to individual difference
10. People tend to be more innovative and
creative and take their own initiative to learn

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MaterialCentered Strategy
Emphasize the use of teaching and learningmaterials during the teaching and learning process
Teaching materials used as teaching aids are
chart, maps, specimens, model, film slides, radio,tape recorder, projector, television, video andcomputers.
Teacher are able to present the lesson effectivelyand in an intersecting manner

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Learning materials are material used bystudents such as text book, work sheets,printed materials, modules, laboratory
apparatus and computer
Teaching methods: audiovisual method usingtape recorder, projector, television and video,
programme instructional teaching usingcomputer and software and modular teachingusing printed materials; experiential methodsusing laboratory apparatus; inquirydiscovery
using science apparatus, demonstration usingcharts, diagram

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Applications of materialscentered strategyinvolve teachercentered strategy. E.g. a
teacher may use teaching aids to demonstrateor explain a certain teaching activity
Some of the applications of materialcenteredstrategy involve studentscentered strategy.
E.g. when using teaching methods such asinquirydiscovery, problem solving or projectmethods, pupils need to use learning materialsto perform, investigate and study to carry outtheir learning activities or assignments
Characteristics of MaterialCentered

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Characteristics of Material CenteredStrategy
1. Teacher and students need teaching
and learning materials to optimizeteaching and learning inside andoutside the classroom
2. Provide opportunity for interaction andcommunication among the teacher,students and teaching aids
3. The skills of using teaching and
learning aids play the primary role toachieve the predetermined objectives

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5. Emphasizes on the overall development of thepupils potentials, especially development ofcognitive, physical, emotional and socialaspects
6. With teaching aids, teachers will be able topresent the lesson clearly, accurately and in aninteresting manner
7. With learning aids, pupils will be able todevelop their manipulative skills, and fosterwith positive attitude in group activities
8. This strategy provides opportunity for
meaningful teaching and learning experiences,whereby abstract knowledge and skills areacquired through concrete practical expereices

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TaskBased Strategy
Based on learning activities that are planned bythe teacher for pupils, to carry a certain task. Asthese learning activities required teaching andlearning materials, it is closely related with
materialcentered strategy as well as pupilcentered strategyTeaching methods and activities under this task
based strategy are role play, drama, project suchas model making, discussion such as debate and
brainstorming, and other assignment activities