BRT in China: A brief review

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By Xiaomei Duan, Chief Engineer, Guangzhou Municipal Technology Development Corp and (Guangzhou, China) and Karl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (Washington, D.C., USA)

Transcript of BRT in China: A brief review

  • 1. BRT in China: A brief reviewDuan Xiaomei, Chief Engineer, GMTDCGuangzhou Municipal Engineering Design & Research InstituteProject-In-Charge, Guangzhou BRT ProjectKarl Fjellstrom, Deputy Director, ITDP World Bank, Washington14 January 2009

2. In operationresearch or in construction 3. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 4. Kunming: Opened 1999 5 corridors, 47km bus lanes 63 stations Peak capacity 8,600 pphpd 5. System Aspect classification See for latest figures 6. Kunming median bus lanes 7. Kunming. Many problems are concentrated at the intersection. But many intersections have been convert from 4 phase to 2 phase. 8. Daily experience in Kunmings busway corridors 9. Kunming: unsafe access to a mid-block bus station 10. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 11. Beijing: Opened 2004 3 corridors, 37km bus lanes(55Km) 61 stations Peak capacity 8,000 pphpd 12. See for latest figures 13. A typical open-air corridor 1 station 14. Passengers wait for a non-BRT bus at a Beijing BRT station (this situation has since been greatly improved, and rarely do non-BRT buses now operate in the BRT corridor) 15. Runway degradation in corridor 1 16. Better stations in outer part of corridor 2; overtaking mixed traffic; right-side doors 17. Station in inner part of corridor 2, without shelter 18. Offset station in corridor 2 19. In all corridors the large majority of bus demand is outside the BRT, making an overall time saving benefit for bus passengers unlikely. Corr. 2&3 demand ~2,000 pphpd in BRT 20. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 21. Hangzhou: Opened 2006 2 corridors, 7km bus lanes(27.2Km) 25 stations Peak capacity 1,500 pphpd 7km dedicated bus lanes; 27.2km corridor, 2nd corridor recently opened 22. See for latest figures 23. Hangzhou station, with buses entering mixed traffic at the intersection 24. High quality station environment 25. More than 75% of public transport demand is outside BRT lane. Mixed traffic in the BRT lane in peak hours 26. Severe bus and mixed traffic congestion 27. Hangzhou's BRT is now open to 12m 'feeder' buses serving 4 routes in addition to the two trunk line 18m BRT bus routes. Flexible routing has been introduced to boost demand 28. Runway degradation 29. Where high volumes of bikes are forced onto the walkway, many instead use the BRT lane 30. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside bus bay-style stops and very poor results for buses, bicycles and pedestrians 31. Corridor 2: now operational; curbside stops and very poor results 32. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 33. Changzhou: Opened 2008 26 stations 1 corridor, 21km bus lanes(25Km) Peak capacity 4,500 pphpd 34. See for latest figures 35. Most stations are offset across intersections. Some are facing 36. Even with current low demand, some stations are already experiencing overcrowding 37. In city centre, critical 500m section of BRT corridor is open to mixed traffic and is congested during peak periods 38. Significant time savings are possible in the city centre, though BRT peak hour city centre speeds are low 39. Stations located at the intersection already sometimes result in queues blocking the intersection and the pedestrian crossing, even with current relatively low bus volumes 40. None of the BRT systems so far have incorporated bike parking into any of the BRT designs, despite very high bicycle volumes in Beijing, Changzhou, Kunming and Hangzhou 41. Changzhou's BRT stations are too narrow 42. Narrow stations mean that just a few people reading the information board is enough to block passage 43. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 44. Dalian: Opened 2008 1 corridor, 9km bus lanes (13.7km) 14 stations Peak capacity 6,500 pphpd 45. See for latest figures 46. Median aligned busway; minimal cover at stations; low demand along the corridor 47. 3 door 12m BRT buses 48. 4 door 18m BRT buses 49. Flexible routing 50. Route 405 is a feeder (non-BRT) buses, a large fleet, frequency roughly the same as the two BRT routes (12m blue and 18m red) combined 51. Regular buses in the BRT corridor outnumber BRT buses by roughly 3:1 52. Morning peak into the city: bus demand outside far exceeds inside the corridor 53. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 54. Dalian: Opened 2008 1 corridor, 6km bus lanes(11.5km) 9 stations Peak capacity 200 pphpd 55. See for latest figures 56. BRT bus exiting the central bus lanes 57. Access at the Jiu Keng Zi terminal station at Daping 58. Passengers alight at the BRT terminal 59. As well as the step to enter the bus, passengers have one additional step in bus doorway 60. Best thing you can say about Chongqing BRT is that for 1 RMB can get shoe polished outside the downtown terminal station 61. Produce from an adjacent field adorns a damaged BRT station sign on a pedestrian bridge 62. The corridor is only a 21 minute trip, but the Chongqing BRT bus has been designed like an intercity coach, with 39 large padded seats and little standing room 63. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 64. Xiamen: Opened 2008 2 corridors, 38km bus lanes 30 stations Peak capacity 3,600 pphpd 65. See for latest figures 66. BRT feeder route map 67. Most demand below the elevated busway; shortage of access ramps 68. Severe overcrowding, even during off peak, has led to consideration of using 18m buses 69. Queuing for exit fare validation scanning (for distance-based fare application) delays station exit at busy stations by several minutes 70. Narrow station access combined with the exit fare verification and few turnstiles further limits system capacity 71. Queuing at the Railway Station BRT station 72. Bicycles are banned along Xiahe Lu, Xiamen's main BRT corridor 73. Lots of stairs 74. On street parking 75. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 76. Jinan: Opened 2008 2 corridors, 10km bus lanes (14.2) 22 stations Peak capacity 4500 pphpd 77. BRT under a massive elevated road: dead at birth? 78. Wide stations and ample turnstiles, but extremely low passenger demand 79. Oppressive environment, but generally good pedestrian and bicycle facilities and access, elevated road minimizes development potential 80. Spacious, well-protected stations 81. Flexible 18m buses; 3 doors in both sides 82. Doors in both sides 83. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 84. Steps in the Guangzhou BRTplanning process 2003-2004 preliminary BRT planning ITDP MOU withLate 2009: ConstructionBRT Commission ofoperation Guangzhou , Apr. 2005 GMTDC / GMEDRI work with ITDP since that time 2007-2008: Implementation planning & design.2006: Phase II Final station &planning; further operational design, BRTtraffic, operational authority, architecture,and design engineeringplanning &2005: Conceptual design, metrodemand analysisplan, demand integration, NMTfor phase Ianalysis & corridorintegration, demandcomparison analysis 85. Ceremony to launch BRT construction in Guangzhou 86. News coverage of start of construction, 30-Nov-08 87. China BRT systems peak passenger flows(actual ridership except Guangzhou, projected)2500020000 paek passegerns / hour / direction (pphpd)1500010000 5000 0Chongqing Hangzhou Xiamen Jinan ChangzhouDalianBeijing Kunming Guangzhou Peak pphpd 200 1,500 3,6004,5004,500 6,5008,000 8,60023,000Count date29-Mar-08 06-Dec-07 05-Sep-08 08-Jan-09 17-Apr-08 14-Apr-08 15-May-0705-Mar-08 2010 88. 23 Phase I BRT routes 89. Zhongshan Avenue bus speeds(morning peak, Tangxia to Tiyu Zhongxin) Km/hr1413121110 Source: ITDP/GMEDRI surveys 90. 70,000 passenger hourstime saving per dayPassenger-hours saved per hour with BRT (east to west, morning peak), between BRT stations. Comparison between the alternative BRT corridors shows greatest time savings on Zhongshan Avenue this analysis convinced the city to choose Zhongshan Avenue 91. BRT Station layoutOne of the 1-moduleconfigurationsoffset, at grade One of the 1-module configurations offset, footbridgeOne of the 2-moduleconfigurationsfacing, at grade crossing) 92. Tianhe Gongyuan BRT station (After & Before): Currently 350 buses and 23,000 buses/hr/dir in the morning peak 93. 4840 94. Integration with the Guangzhou metro TBR 95. BRT in China KunmingChongqing Xiamen BeijingHangzhou JinanChangzhouGuangzhouDalian Conclusion 96. Hefei BRT, under construction 97. Hefei BRT, under construction 98. Concluding remarks All have low capacity Hefei BRT, under station design, limitingconstruction, seems to have a capacity and expansionhigher capacity design Most do not provide an Guangzhou BRT is projected to be overall time saving benefit Asias first high capacity BRT, with for bus passengers or more than double the one-direction mixed traffic in the corridor capacity of any other BRT system in China. The system will also feature All tend to design stations tunnels connecting metro and BRT of the same size, regardless at 3 stations, bike parking at BRT of passenger demand stations, a high quality enclosed All have only one operator station design, and good pedestrian There is a trend toward access flexible operation modes Se